Our understanding of gender inequalities in society is based on how hegemonic masculinity operates. Subordinate men only exist because they are measured in relation to hegemonic masculinity. Even so, as a group, subordinate men can still access power and privilege by aspiring to hegemonic masculine traits (Messner, 1997). Emphasised femininity implies that individuals are orientated to accommodate the desires and interests of men (Kilduff & Mehra, 1996). Women who possess hegemonic masculine characteristics, such as successful, competitive and physically superior women, are often seen as threats to men, unfeminine and ‘bad’ (Vescio, Schlenker & Lenes, 2010).
She applies this idea to the fact that ‘the determining male gaze projects its phantasy onto the female figure, which is styled accordingly’, but not necessarily represent her accurately. Whoever holds the dominant position of power can represent the oppressed masses however they choose, regardless of the strength of the oppressed individual. Indeed, Alisoun makes this analogy not long after she says ‘stibourn I was as is a leonesse’ (l.637): powerful, but forced into subservience by (mis)representation in a society which privileges the male gaze. Further, though Alisoun’s voice challenges this double standard, we must not forget that she Chaucer’s creation. He is inscribing a female voice which critiques the very action of inscribing the female voice, making it necessarily and paradoxically inauthentic.
Undeniably, women have been subjugated under men’s relentless, patriarchal control in both political and cultural spheres of society throughout history. Attributed to stubborn male social ideologies, patriarchal constructed superiority has advocated and maintained unequal and unfair sex and gender boundaries. According to Thomas Lacqueur, our social gender structures are based on “a continuum, with perfect maleness at one end and imperfect, defective, or defective maleness (what we might call “femaleness”) at the other” (What is Christian, 26). To break these evident, unequal boundaries between men and women Lacqueur suggest manipulating perceived patriarchal ideologies by exploring “sex differences and the gendered characteristics accompanying
He stated that “Orientalism is a style of thought based upon an ontological and epistemological distinction between ‘the Orient’ and ‘the Occident” (Said E. W., 1978, p. 2). In his eyes, the construction of Orientalism presumed a static Orient, strange and different in the eyes of the West, which was a relation of power differences (Said E. W., 1978, pp. 1-96). This construction of otherness “… serves as a constant reminder of difference” for viewers of art when the presentation of the objects follows these orientalist discourse notion (Jordanova, 2000, p. 245). Edward Said’s book has been criticized as well for only proving a binary and for constructing a similar timeless, unchanging and essentialist image of the West (Macfie, 2002, pp.
Heteronormativity is the belief that everyone is one of two genders, male or female, and that males are sexually attracted to females, and vice versa. For Lorelei, one of her biggest assets is that she only is attracted to men. She does not deviate and become attracted to Dorothy nor does she show any indication of desire for the same sex. In Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, there are very little female characters. This lack of female characters, it seems only allows for heteronormative sexual relationships.
1. Three political issues that are most evident for women during the 1960’s and 1970’s Chicana/o Movement are oppression, machismo, and control over their bodies. Chicana’s encountered oppression from La Raza because they focused on getting equal rights for the men and completely put the women’s needs aside. Women were not accepted by the leaders in the Chicano Movement or the Anglo establishment (Vidal 22). Chicana’s experienced machismo within the Chicano Movement because they were seen useful only to perform sexual activities or support the men.
Gander stereotypes could limit women’s and men’s capacity to develop their personal abilities. There are many gender stereotypes about men and women such as men are leaders, men are strong, men are rulers, but women are treated conversely like a second gender. In the poem "Rite of Passage," Sharon Olds describes all today's stereotypes about male and shows how the world views a normal man in a society. Also, in the writing "The War Against Boys" Christina Hoff Sommers writes Patricia O'Reilly opinion about that "It is really clear that boys are Number One in this society and in most of the world" (283). All those gender stereotypes could lead to misogyny, sexual harassment, and violence into families, at school, even on streets.
Radical feminism viewed patriarchy as dividing rights, privileges and power primarily by sex, this resulted in the oppression of women and privileging men. Radical feminism opposes existing political and social organization in general because it is inherently tied to patriarchy. Radical feminists were skeptical of political action within the current system, and instead they wanted to focus on culture change that undermines patriarchy and associated hierarchical structures. Radical feminists are often more militant in their approach in terms of getting to the root of the problem as opposed to other feminists. A radical feminist aims to break down the patriarchy system instead of just making minor adjustments to the system through legal changes.
The study of intellectual powers starts between two sexes, with men simply claiming more education and rights in society. The documentary, Miss Representation explores how media’s often degrading the portrayals of women. Jane Fonda said, “Society is toxic to young girls”, in relation most advertising discriminates women. Majority of the time media is used to make women look weak, it usually contradicts gender portrayal guidelines, based on the sexuality, authority, violence, and language content. I personally think that all of this is true, media reinforces the gender stereotype that men are always looking to attract women; and women are merely the objects looking to get caught.
Feminism isn’t just equality amongst men and women; it can be used to illustrate social, economic, cultural, even political movements. In the novel An Untamed State by Roxane Gay, the concept of feminism in its disdain way, is transformed into something almost inadmissible. Women are supposed to be seen as powerless in a country like Haiti where men take advantage of women, but the roles are switched when the women display this nature. An Untamed State displays the reverse of the stereotypical role in society of men being dominant, because women hold both emotional and social power in a way that changes the scope of male/female relationships. As relationships unfold, dominant forces begin to become more apparent.