Freud’s perspective is people projecting father figure on the “God”. Obviously his theory seems constructed specifically to account for those theistic religion, the nontheistic religion does not suitable for
Critics of Religion Midterm 2. Although Friedrich Nietzsche’s ideas and work have long been associated with atheism and even the antisemitism that would eventually lead to the Holocaust, I think a slightly more fitting description of his point of view in The Genealogy of Morals might be “anticlerical”. While I believe there are good arguments that can be made for both atheism and anticlericalism, Nietzsche seems to focus most of his energy on critiquing religious clergy such as priests as well as organized religion and its impact on morality, rather than critiquing belief in God. The first essay includes an etymology of the words “good” and “bad” and how they underwent a transvaluation at some point due to religious clergy, which ultimately lead to a morality system that he argues is not natural or innate within us. The second essay deals with guilt and
A theory of secularization is principally concerned with analysing the extent to which the role of religion is losing prominence, authority and/or utility in the modern world. As Christiano and Swatos explain, “the principal thrust in secularization theory has…been a claim that, in the face of scientific rationality, religion's influence on all aspects of life… is in dramatic decline.” Dating back to Weber, this claim was supported by evidence suggesting that religious epistemologies were losing credibility and being replaced by a secular epistemology; one that provided knowledge based on human reason, ingenuity and technology. Since then, there has been widespread debate regarding the ability of secularization theory to account for the variety
The literature of Romanticism versus the Victorian era initially becomes a problematic subject to accept. As a Victorian poet, Gerard Manley Hopkins attacks the conception of religion by questioning the existence of God. Hopkins’ sonnets reflect this issue of an oppress religion and educates people towards the conspiracy of a change era through his magnificent poems. Hopkins stands true to the new and improve era of Victorian by conciliating the absences of divinity. Although others may have disagree that G.M.
A huge misconception of spirituality is that it is the same thing as religion, when in fact it is something separate. Zapf made sure to recognize and explain this difference early on in his article. The western view of spirituality is that every revolves around the self. Environment,
During the Medieval period, both society and the educational system centralized around religion, however, Christianity was clouded and political at times, plagued with bits of corruption. Furthermore, the common people of the Renaissance often resorted to extreme and unhealthy asceticism to atone for their sins with practices such as flagellation. Humanism strove to correct these fallacies through an emphasis on the individual and the study of Greek, philosophy, history, grammar, and translation of early Christian texts such as the Gospels. According to Petrarch, the proper task of human will is to be just, the proper task of human reason is to manage extreme emotions, and both contribute to the complete morality of an individual. The proper task of human will is to be just.
For many adherents, religion is holy and pure, rising above the concerns of everyday life, while politics is exactly the opposite, grubby in a way that displays the worst aspects of human nature. But although faith and government might not seem like a natural marriage, squaring this relationship is precisely what Jean-Jacques Rousseau and James Madison try to do in On the Social Contract and Memorial and Remonstrance, respectively. Madison and Rousseau wrote barely two decades apart, and they reviewed much of the same historical information in preparing their analyses. Therefore, one might think that their political philosophies, and thoughts on religion, would align closely. However, they actually have key points of disagreement; namely, Rousseau wants the state to play an active role in religion, whereas Madison does not.
International Relations: Term Report Social Context: Overview Secularism is a very broad term representing a variety of different contexts. In the social context secularism refers to freedom. Freedom in all aspects but particularly related to religion. One must have the fundamental right to choose his/her own religion and practice it in their own manner, one may believe in any sort of ideologies without any interference from external entities, however, religious ideologies are to be kept as an internal matter and not a public or state matter. As Mohammad Ali Jinnah once said: “Religion is merely a matter between man and God.” According to Hassan Nisar a popular critic who often critiques various political parties and systems, he believes that our system is like an engine or a machine, and a machine is always secular.
This is unlike western scholars’ attention to the practices of western societal leaders, politicians, and conquerors and their religious ideologies or affiliations, and their influences in social historical and cultural contexts. Examples include Constantine’s adoption of Christianity and its induction as Rome’s official religion, Alexander the Great’s prophecy as foretold by the Oracle of Delphi, Ivan the Terrible and his struggles with spiritualism and Russian Orthodoxy, and the Roman Catholicism of Napoleon Bonaparte. The shamanism of Genghis Khan and his ideological belief in freedom of religion separates him from the former rulers, and is interesting in that it provides further possibilities for research particularly in social anthropology with regard to understanding how practical belief systems and spiritual dimensions play a central part in the formation and ultimate success or failure of rulers and the ideologies of their people. Genghis Khan has in fact become a symbol in various capacities to the Mongolian people and his influence has
William T. Cavanaugh, a Professor of Theology at DePaul University said, “we can sort them into three categories: religion is absolutist, religion is divisive, and religion is irrational.” Religions block their believers, so they can’t see the right in other religions. Take the three universal religions, for example. In Christianity, believers believe in the Trinity, and Jesus Christ is part of the Trinity. Although Islam has the same origin as Christianity does, Islam believes that Jesus is one of the 6 prophets, and Bible is the pseudepigraphos. Unlike those two religions, Buddhism has a completely different origin story.