dollar since 1983, came under speculative pressure because Hong Kong's inflation rate had been significantly higher than the United States' for years. Monetary authorities spent more than $1 billion to defend the local currency. Since Hong Kong had more than $80 billion in foreign reserves, which is equivalent to 700% of its M1 money supply and 45% of its M3 money supply, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (effectively the city's central bank) managed to maintain the peg. Stock markets became more and more volatile; between 20 and 23 October the Hang Seng Index dropped 23%. The Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA) then promised to protect the currency.
“While roads are being improved throughout the country, the National Capital Region urgently needs more limited access roads, especially skyways, and rail.” As mentioned earlier it is inevitable that the number of cars will get higher and higher every year. This is a huge problem that the government will face, even with the policies and laws pertaining to number coding, fortunate people would still be able to buy new cars for their everyday use. Gonzales (2015), cited a research conducted that “77 percent of cars were bought as alternative vehicles during coding days; 45 percent of car owners had more than one car; 76 percent of those who owned a single car intended to buy a new one; and 33 percent of car owners used an alternative vehicle on coding day.” Solving this problem might be a long
Today the worlds population is growing at 1.15% per year which is 80500000 people annually. Some of the most populated countries of today are India,China,Russia,Brazil and South Africa these countries are also known as the BRIC nations. Population growth does increase demand nevertheless it also volleys workforces with a lot of extra workers, this unfortunately pauperizes wages and increases poverty. It is impossible to see a correlation between population growth and development in 2 or 3 years, In order to see an correlation we have to look about 20 years back so that we can distinguish the impact of all those births entering workforces. Rapid population growth still remains in numerous amount of developing countries.
Major metropolitan areas in developing countries will be absorbing 95% of the overall urban population growths in the country (Rizvi, 2016) .Asia, Africa, the Middle East are facing the challenges of rapid urbanization and urban migration. “The current population OIC estimate for China is 1.4 billion, with India next at 1.29 billion. India with a higher population growth rate is likely to pass China in terms of population by 2030 and will become the number one country in terms of population. The population growth rate in Asian countries is more than the world average growth rate of 1.13% p.a ; in countries like India, Pakistan, Afghanistan it is close to twice the global average” (Rizvi, 2016). Urban migration and growth is embedded in the demand for affordable housing.
From a report by the Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC), trips using private vehicles has alarmingly increased from 9.7% in 1979 to 20.6% in 1992 while trips via public transport has decreased from 90.3% to 79.4% during the same time period. The demand for travel using private vehicles is expected to increase by 23.5% or 989,910 private vehicles on the road by 2020 (Patdu, 2009). Due to these facts, a potential increase in fossil fuels for energy generation and a high increase in private vehicle ownership are to be expected in the near
Tourism international After the international tourism has recorded 2008 and 2009 significant declines due to the financial crisis in the 2nd half, the international arrivals in 2010 rose sharply again to 940 million arrivals. The revenues from international tourism are also increased by + 5% to 693 billion euros. These revenues include accommodation, food and drink, local transport, entertainment and shopping of cross-border tourists, but not the cost of international passenger transport as well as the expenditure of domestic tourists. International passenger transport is estimated by the UNWTO to approximately 16% of international revenues. Among the countries with the highest income from international tourism are the US, Spain, France, China and Italy.
Transportation can be in different ways and means, but road transport is directly affect to the growth of a country. The real value added value of land transport service activities, have grown by 4.5 percent in year 2016.According to (Leshem et al, 2007), road transportation is a critical link between all the other modes of transportation and their proper functioning. It is the lifeblood of industrialized economies. Unfortunately, the existing road network, including the motorway system, is becoming explosively congested due to increase in the number of vehicles and inability to build new and larger motorways (David
Introduction China’s tourism economy has witnessed rapid growth over the past few years. In 2016, the tourism industry catered to 4.44 billion domestic tourist trips, approximately 11% growth compared to the previous year. The total annual tourism revenue reached RMB4,690 billion, representing a 13.6% increase, amongst which 33% of the inbound trips are for sightseeing and leisure (China National Tourism Administration, 2017). While the rise of the shared economy has drawn tremendous attention as the representative of the non-traditional hotel industry and an alternative present and future tourist consumption (S Dong-qi, et al, 2017), the increasing popularity of small-scaled high-amenity boutique hotels as another innovative business model
The e-waste stream is also estimated to increase by 3-5% every year, which is nearly three times faster than the municipal waste streams’ general growth (Arensman, 2000). This is a result of our constant desire for newer and more efficient technology, as well as the intense marketing by the producers, that make us replace our electronic devices more and more frequently. For example, cell phones now have an average life span of less than two years in the industrial world, and computers two to four years (Puckett et al., 2002; UNEP, 2005). The increasing “market penetration” in developing countries, “replacement market” in developed countries and “high obsolescence rate” make E-waste one of the fastest waste streams. There is a pressing need for optimized strategies for the improvement of electronic waste management among communities of nations.
CAUSE-EFFECT ESSAY OUTLINE I. Introduction A. Hook/Attention getter (2 marks): In this modern world, the inclination of technology invent shows a positive growth but the increase in the rate of road accident is a negative issue for a developing country. B. General statement (2 marks): Prof Dr Ahmad Farhan Sadullah, the director general of Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research(MIROS) said that the number of fatalities in the country has reached an “alarming” level. This is because the statistic on the road accident in Malaysia showing a sharp rise starting this few years.