State-Trait Depression Inventory (STDI) was used to measure depression (Spielberger, 2003). A 20-item questionnaire was administered that corresponds to the depression subscale of State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI). It employed a four-point Likert scale with 1 meaning “almost always” and 4 meaning “almost never”. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the scale in the present study is 0.93. A subscale of Ryff’s Scale of Psychological Well-Being entitled Positive Relations with Others was employed (Ryff, 1989), using a six-point Likert scale (0 = totally disagree, 5 = totally agree).
Various researchers have explored the nature of bereavement and grief and what these processes do to individuals in terms of how they cope with loss. It is important to understand how bereavement occurs in order to develop more effective intervention methods in a clinical setting that can help bereaved individuals cope better with their loss. Bereavement and Grief The terms “bereavement” and “grief” have often been used interchangeably. These two processes of course occur hand-in-hand with one another. However, scholars have noted that there is a slight difference between these two terms.
The new criteria extend the concept of the disease to a broader disease spectrum and recommend the use of term ‘NMO spectrum disorders’. However, the main clinical criteria remain the same. NMO is more frequent in women [Refs] and the age of onset ranges from 35–45 years [Refs]. Although familial cases have been reported [Refs], the disease is mainly sporadic. The global prevalence of NMO is approximately 1 to 3 per 100,000 [Refs] and it is higher in non- Caucasian countries [Refs].
In our study, though the median volume of air used for cuff inflation was 20 ml for size 3 SLMA and 30 ml for size 4, the volume ranged from 15-30 ml for size 3 and 20-30 ml for size 4 which is much higher than that recommended. This could possibly be explained by the fact that in 24 patients, a one size smaller SLMA was used. In 16 patients who weighed >70 Kg a size 4 SLMA was used instead of a size 5 which is not easily available. The cuff was therefore probably overinflated to minimize a leak. A study by C.Verghese and B.Ramaswamy 9 showed median volume of air for cuff inflation to 60 cm H₂O was 21.9
In the text, The Ethical Life, by Russ Shafer-Landau, it questions Jonathan Bennett’s morality and sympathy and how the two of them can come into conflict. Morality and sympathy are connected, but still very different. Throughout this chapter, Jonathan Bennett outlines many important points and factors that go into these connections and how they can overlap and conflict. Jonathan Bennett says morality can be “bad1.” This type of morality is one that Bennett strongly disagrees with, no so much that one’s morality is actually proven to be bad or even untrue. Sympathy is different than morality in a myriad of ways.
However, once it does happen, this can cause certain people who were either involved in the tragedy or were witnesses to undergo a feeling of guilt, known as survivor’s guilt. These people may feel like it was partly their fault due to the belief that they may have been able to help, or at least try. Nevertheless, this can result in psychological problems or side effects that can influence the person negatively. Survivor 's guilt may have a great impact on human behavior, emotional encounters, and personal relationships. Human behavior is one of the factors that is affected by survivor’s guilt.
715) Hearn further discusses that linking poverty and neglect would have political and social implications that make it difficult to address and that acknowledging that poverty and neglect are “intertwined” would create the need for “an intervention that would require a great deal of cost and a shift in ideology of many of those in positions to change policy and the way the system works with poor families.” (Hearn, 2011, pg. 716) Instead of focusing on the link between poverty and neglect often the cause of neglect is associated with other underlying issues, such as substance abuse or mental abuse. (Hearn, 2011, pg. 716) Hearn is not saying that these “issues are not fundamentally related to child neglect” (2011, pg. 716) but instead is concerned that they “may draw attention away from underlying factors (such as poverty) that also need to be addressed.” (2011, pg.
I. Creative Influences Autism is a disability that is can’t be easily seen and that is why people who lack information about this disability often judge them. Individuals with autism has different personalities from one another and there are times that they act different towards other people and these people say that they are misbehaving or they just lack empathy from their families without knowing that the person has autism. Theory of mind refers to the idea that an individual with autism does not clearly understand that other individuals have different views, feelings and reasonings. Furthermore, it appears that they have difficulty understanding other people's beliefs, attitudes, and emotions.
Although they are similar in certain aspects, they greatly differ in others. Both sympathy and empathy allows an outsider the opportunity to witness the events that are occurring in the life of another individual. But where empathy allows you to take an observant backseat, sympathy allows you to experience exactly what the other person is suffering through your own relatable experiences. Sympathy occurs when a person imagines themselves experiencing the same emotion that another individual is experiencing from an event that has caused them to react immediately and unexpectedly (Ioannidou & Konstantikaki 2008, pg. 199).