Effects Of Acid Rain

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Introduction: Rain is one of the most essential ingredients for the survival of human and animal life on Earth. Although rain is naturally acidic, it is being increasingly acidified by the presence of pollutants in the environment. The term used to describe this problem is “acid rain” [1] Burning of fossil fuels for industrial and transport sector have led to increase in concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants in the atmosphere leading to air pollution. [2] The oxides of Carbon, Sulfur and Nitrogen present in the air combine with the moisture in the air and form sulphuric acid, carbonic acid and nitric acid, respectively. When it rains or snow, these acids are brought to the earth in what is called acid rain. [3] Acid rain…show more content…
It is one of the major threats since the mid of 19th century. [2] Origin and Extent: In 1872, Robert Angus Smith described the acidic nature of rain around industrial town of Manchester; U.K. in a paper entitled ‘The air and rain beginning of chemical climatology’. [2] Most of the work on acid rain was done in the last decades of 20th century. During these years scientists pointed out the causes and effects of acid rain. Some suggested out that it was related to deforestation others said that amino acid emission can cause acid rain. [5] Our modern understandings that Air pollution (acid rain specifically) emerges as a result of oxides of sulfur. nitrogen etc. is dated back to 1960`s and 1970`s in Sweden by Santé Oden and in North America by Gene Likens and colleagues. Scientific progress of these scientists in the field of atmospheric chemistry raised the attention of government, policy makers, media and general public towards this problem. [6] In recent years, scientists have studied the causes and mechanism of Acid rain. They have been working on the strategies for coping with acid rain and its effects but still a lot of work needs to be done on this issue in the future.…show more content…
(4) Countries Range of pH Japan 4.7 Europe 4.1-5.4 China 4.1- 4.9 US north west 5.1 - 5.2 US west- middle west 5.0 - 5.5 Methods: There are two major methods to measure acid rain as supported by EPA as there two types of acid rain; wet deposition acid rain and dry deposition acid rain. • The National Atmospheric Deposition Program is used to measure wet deposition and its website features maps of rainfall pH and other important precipitation chemistry measurements. • The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) is the other method that is used to measure dry deposition. Its web site features information about the data it collects, the measuring sites, and the kinds of equipment it uses. [4] Causes of Acid
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