Introduction: The Urinary Tract Infections are one of the most important microbial infectious diseases which may cost millions of dollars every year for different countries and governments. Among diverse microbial Urinary Tract Infections, those which are caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli involve a high frequency of diseases around the world. For this reason, the authors are going to discuss about the different aspects of UPEC pathogenicity and the urinary tract infections caused by E.coli. Methods: In this review some important and new studies were studied and evaluated by the authors' experiences. And finally this review was extracted with appropriate criteria.
However, Zn++ ions released from the NPs damage the cell membrane and interact with intracellular components. A wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including major foodborne pathogens, is susceptible to ZnONPs. Previous studies have shown that the mechanism of ZnONP antimicrobial activity involves the generation of hydrogen peroxide and the release of Zn++ ions. ZnO generates highly reactive oxygen species such as OH- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hydrogen peroxide generated on the surface of ZnO can penetrate the bacterial cells and effectively inhibit cell growthThe mechanism of the ZnONP antimicrobial activity is related to the disruption of the bacterial cell membrane integrity, the diminishing cell surface hydrophobicity, and the downregulation of the transcription of oxidative stress resistance genes in bacteria.
“Assessment of Tropospheric Ozone Concentration in Natividad Hall, Bulacan State University” I. Introduction Ozone is a form of elemental oxygen that occurs in the atmosphere, and is classed as an air pollutant harmful to human health. Using the Schoenbein technique, levels of ozone at sites of interest can be quantified. Ozone molecules are comprised of three oxygen atoms bonded in a structure that is highly reactive as an oxidizing agent, and they occur in both the stratosphere and troposphere levels of the atmosphere. Ozone molecules in the stratosphere form the ozone layer, which helps prevent harmful UV rays from reaching the Earth's surface.
2.3 SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION From the above discussion we could get a brief idea about the various types of Air Pollutants and now we will study about the fact that what is the source from where these air pollutants arises. Therefore, the brief discussion of the sources of air pollutants is written as follows. The sources of air pollutants is divided into two types one is Natural Sources and the other is Man- made sources. Natural sources of pollution includes dust carried by the wind from different locations with very little or no green cover, gases released from the body processes of living beings (such as human beings releases carbon dioxide during respiration, cattle releases Methane during digestion, plants releases oxygen during the process of photosynthesis). Smoke which is released from the combustion of various inflammable objects, volcanic eruptions etc., along with the emission of polluted gases are also included in the list of Natural sources of air pollution.
Mycoplasmas usually adhere to cells but, depending on the species, may fuse with the host cell or even invade it (Balish et al., 2002; Dimitrov, 1993 and Lo et al., 1993). These bacteria deplete the nutrients of cell cultures and interfere with the response of these cells when challenged experimentally(Miyazaki, et al., 1990). Interruption of cell metabolism (Pollack et al., 1997), modulation of the immune response (Chambaud et al., 1999 and D’Orazio et al., 1996), modification of cellular morphology, interference with viral replication, chromosome modifications, or cell transformation may occur (Razin et al., 1998). The identification of these phenomena in accidental or experimental infections may contribute to the understanding of the relationship between mycoplasmas and the host cell (Rottem,
Air pollution can be defined as the presence of gas, liquid or particles contained in the air until the occurrence of a change affecting life or other materials. Air pollution caused by emissions from vehicle exhaust, industrial discharge smoke or pollutants, and the use of charcoal or wood burning fire control. Air pollution can be divided into two parts: primary and secondary. The primary air pollutants began when production of sulfur monoxide and carbon monoxide resulting from incomplete combustion. This process will result in fine particles suspended in the air and give side effects on human health.
Recent evidence suggests that increase or decrease of certain trace metals may be related with risks and development of chronic diseases such as cancer . On this subject, many investigations have been carried out in which have focused on metal-induced carcinogenicity and oxidative stress as the most
Types of Air Pollutants: The two types of air pollutants are primary pollutants, which enter the atmosphere directly, and secondary pollutants, which form from a chemical reaction that occurs when pollution is exposed to sunlight. Some Primary Air Pollutants may include: - carbon oxides - nitrogen oxides - sulfur oxides - particulates - lead - volatile organic compounds Some Secondary Air Pollutants may include: - Photochemical smog - Nitrogen oxides - Ozone Ozone is one of the major secondary pollutants. It is both a pollutant and a greenhouse gas. About air pollution What is Air Pollution? Air pollution occurs when harmful substances including particulates and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Polymer nanocomposites consist of many nanoparticles dispersed in the polymer strand. Nanomaterials are currently being developed for drug delivery and other cancerous cells, in which they are administered injection in the bloodstream to target cells within tissues. Applications of devices in medicine and research using nanomaterials The unique structural properties and relative size of nanomaterials, which ranges from 100 to 500 nanometres has enabled health professionals to rapidly improve a patient's condition after diagnosis. Nanoparticles are injected into the bloodstream and their varied size and sensors on the surface affect which areas they will target, highlighting the specificity of these particles. Smaller particles have the ability to interact with biomolecules on the outside and inside surface of the cells and this enables them to release and deliver the required treatment at a molecular scale.
Sources of urban air pollution maybe grouped according to their origin in industrial, residential and transport activities (Kojima & Lovei, 2001). Anthropogenic air pollution originates from a variety of sources, including households, vehicles, large stationary sources, small and medium size industries, agriculture and forest burning. Pollution from many of these sources is closely related to the production and consumption of energy, especially the combustion of fossil fuels. Traffic is the large contributor to fine particulate emissions (Kojima & Lovei,