Bribery: The Role Of Bribery In International Business

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1. Introduction
Bribery in international business is widely regarded as a major political and social issue around the world, and the one with plenty of harmful effects. Multinational companies have frequently traded payoffs for favourable conditions by decision makers to obtain contracts, reduce import duties, or acquire favourable interpretation of laws affecting the firm (Christopher Baughn et al., 2009). The rapid growth of international trade and investment has been accompanied by internationalization of corrupt practices including bribery over the past 50 years (Lambsdorff, 2007). The World Bank (2013) used a conservative approach to give an estimate for annual world bribery of about $1 trillion. In Ernst & Young’s 10th Global Fraud survey
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We began with a keyword search using our university electronic databases for literature search. The keywords include ‘bribery’, ‘bribery in international businesses’, and ‘corporate culture’ in companies’. To be included in the review, we only select those articles that contribute to theoretical development or conduct empirical research for international bribery. The papers that only offer unsupported description on what multinational enterprises (MNEs) should or should not to combat bribery are not included in our research. This research utilizes a range of bribery data analysis which was revealed by different kinds of academic articles, such as business report a survey findings.
We will use stakeholder’s theory (Freeman, 1984; Phillips and Robert, 2003) to identify the impacts of international bribery on various groups to which the corporation has a responsibility. According to stakeholder theory (Crane and Matten, 2007), managers need balance this with the competing interests of other stakeholders for long-term survival of the corporation, instead of maximizing the interest of only of one
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Critical reflection on desk research approach
Desk research, known as secondary research, makes use of information or data that has already been collected by someone else usually for other purpose (Blumberg, Cooper and Schindler, 2014).
3.1. The advantage of desk research
Firstly, significant advantage of desk research is that it enables researchers to save time and money, and obtain high quality data. Using desk research, time consuming activities including establish the research, finding the respondents, collecting information from respondents and recording information acquired in a way suitable for analysis is not necessary (Blumberg, Cooper and Schindler, 2014). The researchers could quickly consult and analyse secondary data that are generally available, which help them to find answers to research problems.
Secondly, secondary research may offer high quality data than could be better obtained with a new research project (David and Michael, 1993). These data generally is provided by well-known institutions including national and international government institutions (e.g. The World Bank and OECD) or commercial research

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