Effects Of Bullying

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Bullying presents one of the greatest health risks to children, youth, and young adults in U.S. society. It is pernicious in its impact even if often less visible and less readily identifiable than other public health concerns. Its effects on victims, perpetrators, and even bystanders are both immediate and long term and can affect the development and functioning of individuals across generations. The epicenter for bullying is schools, colleges, and universities, where vast numbers of children, youth, and young adults spend much of their time. Bullying—a form of harassment and violence—needs to be understood from a developmental, social, and educational perspective. The educational settings in which it occurs and where prevention
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Physical aggression involves harming others physically (e.g., hitting, kicking, stabbing, or shooting them). Verbal aggression involves harming others with words (e.g., yelling, screaming, swearing, name calling). Relational aggression (also called social aggression) is defined as intentionally harming another person’s social relationships, feelings of acceptance, or inclusion within a group (e.g., Crick & Grotpeter, 1995). Some examples of relational aggression include saying bad things about people behind their backs, withdrawing affection to get what you want, excluding others from your circle of friends, and giving someone the “silent treatment.” “Recent research shows that social pain may even linger longer than physical pain (Chen, Williams, Fitness, & Newton, 2008). Frustration - Aggression Theory Frustration and Aggression theory was given by Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mowrer, & Sears, in 1939. Their theory was summarized in two bold statements:
(1) “The occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the existence of
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This causal link has also been shown in experiments involving humans. In one experiment (Berman, McCloskey, Fanning, Schumacher, & Coccaro, 2009).


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