INTRODUCTION 1. Background 1.1. Colonialism of Africa According to Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin in Post-Colonial Studies- The key Concepts colonialism is ‘‘the specific form of cultural exploitation that developed with the expansion of Europe over the last 400 years’’ (45). It is the implanting of settlements on a distant territory (122). Ania Loomba defines colonialism as the conquest and control of other people’s land and goods (8).
Henry Stanley, a journalist, is one of the people that sparked an interest in Africa. He traveled to Africa and found David Livingstone, who explored Africa thoroughly. The Europeans were motivated by three main factors, economic, political, and social. The Europeans wanted to expand. The Europeans used the military to force Africa into letting them have their land.
Colonialism According to Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin in Post-Colonial Studies- The Key Concepts (2000) colonialism is ‘‘the specific form of cultural exploitation that developed with the expansion of Europe over the last 400 years’’ (p. 45). It is the implanting of settlements on a distant territory (p.122). Ania Loomba defines colonialism as the conquest and control of other people’s land and goods (p. 8). The African continent has experienced direct European colonialism from the 1880s. According to A. Adu Boahen ( 2000), the period 1890-1910 represents the conquest of Africa by whites and the period after the World War 1 up to 1935 is called ‘‘high noon’’ (p. 13) of colonialism.
For one thing, the raging flame of nationalism and the spread of the Industrial Revolution throughout the European Continent forced major European powers such as Germany, France and Britain to vie for more resources to fuel their industrial manufacture and compete for new markets for their factory products. As such, these nations had their eye on Africa as a source of raw materials and as a market for their industrial products. To achieve their objects, the European powers occupied immense areas of Africa during the late 19th and the early 20th centuries, which heralded the era of European imperialism in Africa. During the imperial period, the European nations with strong political, military and economic power muscled their way across the African Continent and shouldered the weak ones aside, completely dominating every aspect of the African people. Strategic motivation also played an essential role in the scramble.
Why did British settlers in North America and the West Indies increasingly need to use slave labour between c. 1660 and 1807? Slavery is one of the most emotive issues in human history. Western slavery represented an aspect of the commodification of human beings for reasons of labor that is central to economic activity. From the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries European slavery was focused on the Atlantic world. There, labour was needed and labour was available but in different places.
African delegates were not in attendance while European nations debated their future. Elizabeth Heath from Oxford References writes, “During the 1870s and early 1880s European nations such as Great Britain, France, and Germany began looking to Africa for natural resources for their growing industrial sectors as well as a potential market for the goods these factories produced.” The European nations were unconcerned with the cultural consequences of their actions in Africa. They were only focused on improving their economies through Africa 's resources and consumer market. This treatment caused Africa to suffer due to their lack of independence. Africa continued to suffer over time reaching to modern times where parts of it are considered developing countries.
The rationales used to legitimize the conquest of Africa were influenced by theories that encouraged that society be organized in a way that the nation-state and industrial capitalism characterized the most advanced forms of social organization. Therefore, the Europeans thought that it was their responsibility and duty, as the more superior race, to conquer the “lower” civilizations and bring peace and prosperity upon them. “White Man’s Burden” would be an example of a poem that “gave permission” to the white colonizers to enforce Western civilization on the black inhabitants of Africa. The Europeans viewed their colonizing as a civilizing mission or “burden” that the black inhabitants should be thankful for. (Gellar 1986, 126) Another theory that was used to legitimize European rule would be social darwinism which was derived from Darwin’s Theory of Evolution.
Abstract Colonialism and modernity are topics or aspects of African history that go hand in hand where one is the consequent of the latter. Some scholars view that modernity is the aftermath of the colonial system and others argue contrary to this. Some of the raised questions to this assumption are whether or not Africa would have been at this state had colonisation not taken place, was Africa on the right path to modernity, would Africa have been one of the influential and leading continents globally? Colonialism had an impact on Africa’s political system, economy, tradition, religion and advancement to mention a few. From all this, one can see how this topic of colonialism and modernity stimulates different emotions when discussing it.
The main purpose of the report is to the let reader known about the colonialism and how it’s arrived in Africa. We will discuss many different things such as history of Africa. When did colonialism start in this part of world and what are the factors which lead to the colonization in Africa. Role of the different nations in this whole process will also be discussed
The role/significance of metallurgy in precolonial Africa Introduction Mining and metallurgy play a tremendous role in present day Africa’s economy, politics and social anthropology. Historians argue whether metallurgy and mining in before or after European colonization, played any significant role in African societies, though there is archaeological and paleoanthropological evidence to prove that great African civilizations were a result of the adoption of metallurgy. Presumably, metallurgy makes up a great piece of Africa’s ethnography. The practical usefulness, aesthetic and ceremonial values are a centre of not only daily activities, but the luxuries consumed by humans were anchored since the beginning of metallurgy anywhere the world. Discussion Mining and metalworking was organized variously in different parts of the continent.