In Warlow’s article, he provides an overview of the numerous economic changes that occurred in the 18th century. He discusses the origins of mercantilism and the slow transition to its end, the influence by Smith’s publication of The Wealth of Nations on mercantilism, and how physiocracy rebuffed the principles of mercantilism and preferred an economic philosophy based on land (Warlow, 2007). Mercantilism started as a practice during the transition from the feudal economy to merchant capitalism and international commerce. A strong central authority was vital to the expansion of markets and mercantilists considered that the power of the state should be enhanced by the accumulation of wealth in gold and silver. Mercantilists contended that nations compete for business opportunities.
As each station opened (Kilindini, Voi, Tsavo, Athi River, Nairobi, Nakuru, Kisumu – a town sprouted and boundaries were defined. Many of today’s interior towns and ports developed along the railway line junctions and depots during and after the construction of the railway. The Kenya-Uganda railway is a railway system linking the interiors of Uganda and Kenya to the Indian Ocean at Mombasa known as Uganda Railway. The railway was built by the British government under the foreign office when Britain had direct administrative control of the region known as British East Africa. Britain wanted to dominate not only the trade routes but also the important resources available in these countries and in demand in Europe.
An often glossed over and prettily wrapped part of history can be found when examining the colonial era. This was a time of imperial racing to see who could develop the most civilizations and obtain the most land worldwide. What is ignored though is the truth of what colonialism did to the nations and the reality of its impacts on the world as a whole. Colonialism is responsible for the unequal biases toward race, gender, social class, among and within nations. Further, colonialism set into motion exploitation of nations of the global south for the benefit of nations of the global north, and even upon decolonization, with the optimistic idea of independence, imperial powers set up a system to where the decolonized nations were still dependent on them and continued the abuse of the global south nations and their resources for the economic gain, and that system sticks with us to this day.
(Primary Source) He gave a speech in 1872, June 24th at the Crystal palace, in which he describes the British empires colonies as “a millstone round our necks.” However by 1880 shortly before his death in 1881, he had changed his stance on colonies. He now almost felt it was Britain’s duty to garner control and almost give support to less developed countries, in particular Africa. This brought forth the concept of new imperialism, where countries now wanted to exert influence of colonies past the norm of economic factors. By the 1900’s almost eighty percent of the world was colonised by Europeans, with new imperialism in motion, industrialisation and nationalism was at the forefront of this European machine. There were deemed to be four types of imperialism, in which the major European powers carried them out.
A system of world empires meant that the world was made up of large empires who were self-dependent economically, spread by military campaigns, and earned wealth and power through conquest and taxes from their subjects. This long and slow transformation started to pick up speed as the idea of modern nation state, citizenship, and nationalism started to become favored by governments and the
Previously, the sole source of revenue for the ruler was through the taxation of land. However, the ruler found another way of increasing his revenue. He employed himself as a critical part of the home market by taking control of the taxation of the movement of goods within the kingdom. This specific tax was previously collected and overseen by the local headman who showed authority in his region by restricting the mobility or imposing certain taxes on goods that were moving through his territory. By removing such local expressions of power, the ruler moved to create a unified home market which he would essentially be able to control.
Colonialism According to Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin in Post-Colonial Studies- The Key Concepts (2000) colonialism is ‘‘the specific form of cultural exploitation that developed with the expansion of Europe over the last 400 years’’ (p. 45). It is the implanting of settlements on a distant territory (p.122). Ania Loomba defines colonialism as the conquest and control of other people’s land and goods (p. 8). The African continent has experienced direct European colonialism from the 1880s. According to A. Adu Boahen ( 2000), the period 1890-1910 represents the conquest of Africa by whites and the period after the World War 1 up to 1935 is called ‘‘high noon’’ (p. 13) of colonialism.
(Heywood, 2011) With capitalism’s socio-economic ideals and tendencies that supports private property; the importance, independence, and significance of the market; and the growing reliance of waged labour in shaping the economy of a state was ingrained in the processes through which colonialism was done (State model). (Comaroff, 1989) On a much related note, Post-colonialists interprets the effects of colonialism as the way Europeans “subverted indigenous cultures which led to the spread of soulless consumerism.” Consumerism on which the capitalist ideas are founded on have been one of the greatest implications of colonialism on many parts of the world in such a way that most states of today are promoting and advocating the use of democracy and with it, the use of capitalism in which an economy is built on. The decolonization of states after WWII in which Western ideals were still ingrained to the states that was colonized despite the fact that they are already independent states—instilled Eurocentric ideals—is due to the effects of colonialism in such a
Linguistic Imperialism Language is the main mean of communication between people. Every country has or had their own languages. Nowadays, some powerful countries try to dominate their language over others language and transfer it inside other countries for the purposes of showing their military and economic power to their rivals. This term is called linguistic imperialism that along with the language their cultures also will be transferred. The definition for the linguistic imperialism is “language imperialism involves the transfer of a dominant language to other peoples.
INTRODUCTION 1. Background 1.1. Colonialism of Africa According to Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin in Post-Colonial Studies- The key Concepts colonialism is ‘‘the specific form of cultural exploitation that developed with the expansion of Europe over the last 400 years’’ (45). It is the implanting of settlements on a distant territory (122). Ania Loomba defines colonialism as the conquest and control of other people’s land and goods (8).