Dental Caries Research Paper

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Introduction
What is Dental caries?
Dental Caries can be defined as a disease where the hard tooth structure (dentin, enamel and cementum) become damage due to bacterial processes. It forms through the interaction between fermentable carbohydrates and acid producing bacteria, and other host factors such as the teeth and saliva over a period of time (Featherstone, 2008). Where the producing acids dissolve the mineral of the enamel and dentine, which can lead to tooth destruction. The two major groups of bacteria that are responsible for producing organic acids during metabolism of fermentable carbohydrates are the mutans streptococci and the lactobacilli species. (Solanki, 2012).

Factors that cause Dental caries formation

There are four
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Daily brushings (with flossing) primary purpose is to remove plaque and prevent the formation of it. Plaque consist mostly of bacteria. After every meal (or snack) when carbohydrates in food are left on teeth, the tooth become more vulnerable to dental caries as the amount of bacterial plaque increase. The removal of dental plaque on accessible surfaces can be done by the use of a toothbrush.

Soft-bristled toothbrushes is recommended by Dental professions. The common brushing method and usually recommended is to brush the teeth at slight angle, with the bristles pointing towards the gingiva. Brushing with a downward, sweeping motion should be use to clean the upper teeth. The occlusal surfaces of the premolars and molars should be brushed with a scrubbing motion. The tongue should also be brushed to remove food debris and bacteria. Lastly, rinse the mouth with either water or mouthwash (Anon, 2008:81)

Toothbrushes cannot reach plaque between teeth and on chewing surfaces such as the inside of pits and fissures. But other preventative method can, such as dental floss. Dental floss removes plaque from areas which could develop proximal
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If teeth are frequently exposed to this environment, it’s more likely for dental caries to develop. Minimizing snacking is essential to prevent dental caries, since it creates a continual supply of nutrition for bacteria to produce acid in the mouth. () The production of saliva can be increased by chewing and stimulation of flavour receptors on the tongue. Saliva contains natural buffers that prevents pH to decrease to the point where the point where the enamel may become demineralised. Research have shown that if milk and certain kind of cheese like cheddar are eaten soon after the consumption of food potentially harmful to teeth, it may counter tooth

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