In France, during the 17th century, under the reign of Louis XIV, Colbert, minister of finances in France, was the first man to put France back into the race for Asia. He was aware that, having a major influence on the seas and Asian continent would serve France to become one of the leading european fortunes. By doing so, Colbert envisioned broader objectives than just commerce. They were defined by three factors: geopolitics, the fight against the English and Dutch products, the influence overseas. Commerce, the expansion into Asia, looking to find and extract raw resources, while influencing Asia furthermore.
Colonialism is the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically. In addition, a colony is a country or area under the full or partial political control of another country and occupied by settlers from that country. Following the end of the slave trade, between the period 1871- 1914 European nations rushed on the African continent to exploit its large fields of raw materials and precious metals. Also known as the scramble for Africa, different territories on the continent experienced various forms of colonisation. This paper will focus on the Algerian case.
The 18th century serves as a major turning point in the British Empire, forming the modern view of its territories and conquests. The birth of imperial Britain is truly complete with the conquering of the New World, mainly the Caribbean and North America, near the middle of the 17th century. It is this conquering of the Spanish empire and the subjugation of newly discovered people that finalizes the trending growth of Britain’s global empire, which created and fostered anxiety in the British people. The idea of nation-building defined a new role for Britain, which only fully incorporated Scotland in 1740, solidifying their place in the networks of global trade. It is through this development that for the first time, in the 18th century, large groups of people were not only able to identify as a nation in Britain, but also distinguish “otherness” through the subjugation of native peoples in newly discovered lands.
Arriving in India in 1498, Vasco da Gama was a Portuguese explorer who had navigated the first European nautical path to India across a body of water. However, the British arrived later from Britain later in the early 1600’s, while utilizing the same paths used by Vasco da Gama. Led by Sir William Hawkins, Hector was the first British ship to anchor in India on August 24, 1608. Subsequently, trading ports were established in various cities by the British. Exerting power through numerous methods, the British influence and control in India increased to an extent that it was controlling many parts of the country.
In 1540 to 1700, the Scientific Revolution occured, events and tools created during this time period would change life forever. First, the astrolabe and the compass were both technological advances created to help navigate and explore the world. Also, at this time Asian spices were huge, but Italy and Egypt controlled the trade routes to Asia. Then, explorers started to sail the world, finding new routes and lands. Lastly, Christopher Columbus tried to sail to Asia in late 1492, but messed up on his way there and discovered the New World.
Therefore, Hasting had supported William Jones to establish an association called the Asiatic Society of Bengal (1784) to create consciousness among the English orientalist emigrants and also to encourage further oriental researches. The Asiatic society of Bengal was, until the nineteenth century, an organization for an elite of company officials where they regularly meet and discuss oriental issues with 100 members since 1790. This period of British orientalism gave birth to many intellectual, religious and social changes in Bengal that is now known as the Bengal
It was the beginning of the colonial period after the discovery of America at the end of the 15th century, a new phase of globalization and a new period of hardship for Africa. This was the golden age of colonial imperialism. They conquer China, India and other Asian countries at varying levels. The United States of America completed its control of Latin America, thus laying the foundation of the "world-economy", after they occupy Asia and Africa’ countries and the Western conceded at Shanghai in Central China. Henceforth, capitalism and imperialism govern, directly or indirectly, the whole planet and compel their vision and law across, even if, at that time, the colonial powers’ interests already thwarted the general principles of free trade and the law of the market.
British-India had two states those under rule of Queen Monarch of Great Britain and the other under rule by the Indian prince who followed British rules. For over 200 years’ Mughal rulers governed a powerful empire in India. In 1614 King James sent the British East Indian Company, a company founded in 1577 by a group of merchants in search of quiet trade, with Sir Thomas Roe to negotiate for permission to establish the East India Company. In 1757 the British gained dominance after winning many victories and gained land at the Battle of Plassey. The British gained the upper hand after the Mughal Empire began to crumble and started to take land for the Monarch of Great Britain.
Thus, the rule of the Malay Sultanate of Malacca was fall into the hands of the Portuguese at 1511s. Malacca sultanate fall marks the beginning of the expansion of the western powers in Malaya. In the 19th century, several states in the Malay Peninsula was ruled by sultans and kings in a similar manner as the ruler of the Malacca Sultanate. At that time, the government is ruled by an authoritarian ruler, the king or sultan. However, the situation began to change when the British started interfering in administrative matters in the 1870s.
A few decades ago, Malaya was colonised by the British. Later on, in 1896, the Federated Malay States were formed and Malaya has since transformed politically, economically and socially. This left lasting colonial impacts that are still remnant till today. During the process of colonisation in Malaya, the British had to cater to not just one group of people but three very different groups; the Malays, Chinese and Indians. These three groups had varying demands which the British tried their best to fulfill.