In a simple way masculinity can be viewed as the opposite or the counter part of femininity. But a critical approach of masculinity shows a different story altogether. It is not exactly the counter part of femininity rather a socially constructed form of behavior, attitudes, presentation depending upon the biological features. Manliness or manhood is not something which the man is born with rather after birth through the action and reaction, attachment and detachment, known and unknown one achieves it. “Gender identities are formed from birth as children are moulded into socially-approved patterns of masculinity and femininity.
To begin, masculinity is a central trait through which men try to compensate for their race and class subordination. Men use masculinity in an attempt to acquire social status and avoid being subordinated. However, among delinquent boys, masculinity is formed through negative encounters with probation officer, the police, juvenile hall, and school discipline. On the other hand, masculinities are also shaped positively by authority figures in the appropriate circumstances. Manhood is also accomplished through the subordination of women and through culture.
Closely related to the idea of gender is the idea of masculinity and femininity. Masculinities can be defined as innate qualities that differ a male from a female however, it translates into culture in the form of specific roles and performances which men have to perform or it is imposed on them (Cornwall, 2010). In abstract terms, masculinity can be understood as something which boys and men do and on the similar lines femininity can also be understood i.e. what women and girls do, more so what women and girls learn to do (Paechter, 2006 and Wesely, 2012). These roles may assign a higher status to men in the power hierarchy irrespective of the fact whether they feel powerful or not.
They do not show their emotions and are reluctant to ask for help. They demonstrate their manliness by means of expressions of aggression, strength and the performance of risk taking activities. In the middle age, what defines the sense of masculinity of a man is his productivity in the workplace. Men who are in control, on the
From the social and cultural expectations for a man and the manner and degree to which he acknowledges and lives up to them we derive the concept of masculinity; those applicable to a woman, together with her compliance with them, we think of as femininity. While masculinity and femininity are often assumed to be natural results of being male or female, there is no necessary connection between the morphology of sex (male or female) and the combination of behaviour and attitude that is defined as gender (masculinity or femininity). Masculinity and femininity are thus cultural products, though society ensures through a number of measures that its members believe in and subscribe to a natural connection between sex and gender in order to stabilize the binary system. The consequence is a naturalization of these expectations for typical masculine and feminine behaviour; they appear to us as natural and universally true, even though, as I have already pointed out, this is not the
How they know such difficult words are a different matter and will be discussed in later paragraphs, however the fact stands that masculinity is often correlated with economic power which is linked quite directly as a result of capitalism. Everyone is pursuing American dream where the limit of one’s wealth is the limit of one’s ability to earn it, and in a capitalist society, this is basically one of the core motions of its people. Liberty also plays a role in defining masculinity. It could be understood that womanizer is one of the traits of men by interpreting it as a way for a man to express freedom. Being able to choose any and as much women as you want also linked to power which is also considered as one of the most important traits of being a man.
Metrosexuality challenges this by society becoming more accepting and open to new ideas and change. Men who were once depicted as masculine are more than ever able to express themselves rather than hide in fear of society 's judgement. Overall the more masculinity is challenged the easier it will be for society to begin to diminish the use of gender stereotypes in the future. Additionally, modern day man consecutively aids towards the depreciation of the male gender stereotypes by challenging them against female stereotypes. This means that the modern day man will participate in what society would associate as a ‘woman 's job’ like staying at home to care for family.
Manhood is perceived differently all over the world. Many think being a man means being a gentleman while others think it means never giving up no matter how hard it is. Manhood will be debated for as long as people are different. What do you think it means to be a
Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Traditional Masculinity While there have been a lot of studies about feminism, masculinity as a field of study is relatively new. It was only during 1995, when R.W. Connell published her influential book entitled Masculinities that a solid theory of masculinity was established. Connell contended that there was no single and universal masculinity, but instead there were different types of masculinities. Out of the four types of masculinities that Connell put forth, the most dominant and most culturally valued form of masculinity in a society is what we call hegemonic masculinity.
Moreover, this is detectable in many, or maybe all languages today and in past ages. Hence, regarding the usage and etymology of masculine, it is clear that it is deeply connected to the concept of gender (Martin and Finn 1). Furthermore, masculinity comprises languages, behaviors, and practices that exist in certain organizational and cultural locations, which are normally identified with males. Therefore, masculinity exists as a positive, “in as much as they offer some means of identity signification for males,” as well as a negative, “in as much as they are not the ‘Other’ (Feminine)” (Itulua-Abumere 42). According to Prof. Clatterbaugh and Dr. Whitehead, male behaviors and masculinity are not just a simple product of biological predispositions or genetic coding.