It also suggests that behaviors and attitudes of schools and families can increase the degree of overlap between said schools and families, resulting in numerous benefits for students. Through Epstein’s research and work, she identified six general types of involvement that focuses on improving student learning. The goal of identifying these six types of involvement is so that educators can help to develop strong school and family relationships, and in turn, better the education of the
This type of decision affects every aspect of not only the child 's’ future but the family of the child. When deciding between the two kinds of education, the parents must think about the way their child learns best, whether that be in a social teaching environment or more of a one-on-one teaching style. While public school and homeschooling may differ in schedules and methods used to educate, they are both educational options that allow children to experience and learn from and about the world around them. However, homeschooling offers a better educational experience and has many more advantages than disadvantages than the public education system. One benefit of homeschooling is that children are taught to enjoy learning at their own pace, whereas in public school the children are required to learn at the teachers’ pace.
Some schools foster healthy parental involvement through events and volunteer opportunities, but sometimes it’s up to the parents to involve themselves with their children’s education like joining them in field trips. According to works of Epstein (1990, 2011), Ho (2001) and Shen et al. (1994), there are three different types of parental involvement which are home-base involvement, school-base involvement and school governance. Home base involvement refers to the interaction between parent and children at home. School based involvement refers to parent interacting and participation in school activities.
Much research, strategy and policy on home-school relationships has focused on the relationship between parents and schools. This is particularly seen in the strong current focus on improving parental engagement in children’s learning, which is a significant factor in children’s educational achievement. Homeschooling lets your children to learn without the time limit and lets them to explore everything that they like, whenever they want, as long as they want. Most of parents choose their children to learn at their home rather than public school because, to develop the quality of children, parents can monitor and control they children in home, and parents will design curriculum to teach their children. The quality of children is also a quality of parents.
3.Volunteering, which ranges from offering opportunities for parents to visit their child 's school to find ways to recruit and train them to work in the school or the classroom. 4. Learning at home, in which schools and educators share ideas to promote at-home learning through high expectations and strategies so parents can monitor and help with homework. 5. Decision-making, in which schools include families as partners in school organizations, advisory panels, and similar committees.
A number of sources were initially used to illuminate the following: • Definition of parental involvement • The significance of parental involvement • The forms parental involvement takes • Barriers to effective parental involvement • Parental attitudes towards parental involvement • Teachers’ attitudes towards parental involvement • Ways to promote parental involvement/empowering parents and school staff to enhance PI in their schools. Briefly, the preliminary literature overview confirms the following: (a) Parental involvement involves the active and willing participation of parents in a wide range of school-based and home-based activities which may be educational or non-educational and extends from supporting and upholding the school ethos
Teacher and student engagement is critical in the classroom because it has the power to define whose knowledge will become a part of school-related knowledge and whose voices will shape it. Students are not just young people for whom adults should devise solutions. They are critical observers of their own conditions and needs, and should be participants in discussions and problem solving related to their education and future opportunities. Hence children need to be aware that their experiences and perceptions are important and should be encouraged to develop the mental skills needed to think and reason independently and have the courage to dissent. What children learn 23 out of school — their capacities, learning abilities, and knowledge base — and bring to school is important to further enhance the learning process.
The school plays an important role in determining the levels of parental involvement in school. Specifically, schools can outline their expectations of parents and regularly communicate with parents about what children are learning. Also, schools can provide opportunities for parents to talk with school personnel about parents' role in their children's education through home visits, family nights, and well-planned parent-teacher conferences and open houses. In addition, the National PTA recommends that parent/family involvement programs welcome parents as volunteer partners in schools and that these programs invite parents to act as full partners in making school decisions that affect children and families. In saying so, developing initiatives to forge stronger ties to the community to reinforce for students a feeling of consistent support from
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter discusses the review of related literature and information gathered by the researcher addressing parental involvement on inclusive education of children with developmental disability. A synthesis will also be provided. Parental Involvement Parental involvement, as described by Henderson and Nancy (1994), is a serious dimension of effective schooling. It has been defined in many ways, commonly as the engagement of parents in their children’s activities at home and at school, and the assurance of parents about their children’s education (Eipstein, 1996; Grolnick & Slowiaczek, 1994; Kohl, Lengua, & McMahon, 2000). Hill and Taylor (2004) also termed involvement as allowing parents in observing the school
They also teach “students the basic educational skills they need to succeed academically” (“Elementary School Teacher” Occupational 1). Another responsibility is providing students with a variety of different learning experiences. They “encourage students intellectual growth by preparing, presenting, and explaining information on a level that the kids can understand” (Cassedy 1). Reinforcing appropriate communication, social skills, self-control, cultural diversity, drug prevention, sharing, and responsibility are also in the description. So they not only teach academically, but they also “help students learn about themselves and the world while preparing them to face future challenges” (“Elementary School Teacher” Occupational 1).