1. Describe and discuss the social determinants associated with the case you have chosen. A large collection of evidence has been accumulating over the past two decades, revealing the impact that social factors have on health at both individual and population levels . This is not to say that medical has no impact on health outcomes, rather that evidence suggests medical care is not the only contributor when determining who is more vulnerable to becoming injured or ill . This has been highlights in an early study by McKeown , who attributed the large increase in life expectancy since the 19th century to be due to a change in living conditions.
“The outlook in this field is extraordinarily favorable, diagnostic medical sonographers and ultrasound technicians should experience job growth of 46 percent nationwide between 2012 and 2022 ranking the field among five fastest growing occupations in the country and resulting in 27,000 new jobs” (Boyle). The job for this career should grow in most regions but it is likely to vary geographically with most states having a fast growth than the nation’s average. The five most regions where the jobs of sonography is growing the fastest during 2012 and 2022 is Puerto Rico, Texas, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado. The averages for each region is, Puerto Rico 58. 7 percent, Texas 57.6 percent, Arizona 54.9 percent, Utah 54.1 percent, and lastly Colorado with 51.3 percent.
There has been an extensive change in the U.S. demographics within last 50 years. According to Center for Health Workforce Studies (2006), in 2020, there will be about 54 million Americans above the age of 65 years as compared to 35 million in 2000. This number is expected to rise further at the rate of 12.5% to 20%, which means by 2050 every 1 in 5 American will be above 65 years (p. 2). This exhibits how baby boomer generation will have a significant impact on the current long-term care system. Long-term care is defined as the continuum of services framed to support the needs of people with chronic health problems and physical limitations.
There are approximately 350 million individuals living with DM worldwide. In the United States, the rate of T2DM has increased in individuals of AA descent with the prevalence rate escalating in the past 30 years and has quadrupled. AAs above 20 years of age are 1.7 times more likely to be diagnosed with DM than the Caucasians. They accounted for 10.8% of all individual with diabetes (CDC, 2015). A comparison of rates of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus by ethnicity and race disclosed that in 2010 the AAs diagnosed for diabetes were 13.2% of 29.1 million Americans (ADA, 2014).
New data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention concludes that with a 30 percent increase in the past two years, 1 in 68 U.S. children have been diagnosed with ASD concluding that early intervention can greatly improve a child’s long-term development and social behaviors (Autism 2014). There are several factors that may contribute to the rising prevalence rate of ASD. Like other disabilities, the occurrence rate of ASD for boys is five times higher than it is for girls. There could be several reasons for this disparity (Hallahan, Kauffman, Pullen, 2015, pp. 211).
Living Old in America In American today, those over 85 are now the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population. Medical advances allowed the number of Americans to live longer with healthier lives but comorbidities for others. In the past two decades, patients died from viruses, influenza and pneumonia. Today, advancement in healthcare has created a new development. Now that vaccines, procedures and medicine are available for all these diseases that once took the lives of the young and old population, the American people are living longer with a new challenge.
More women than men die of heart disease and thousands of children are born each year with heart defects. In addition, nearly 81 million Americans are living with some form of cardiovascular disease, which costs an estimated $449 billion each year. As the population ages, cardiovascular disease will have an even greater human and economic impact. It is estimated that the more than 75 million Americans will be 65 years of age or older by the year 2020. (Texas Heart Institute,
Between 2010 and 2050, the United States population ages 65 and older will nearly double, the population ages 80 and older will nearly triple, and the number of nonagenarians and centenarians—people in their 90s and 100s—will quadruple. (KFF, 2015) Trustees of Medicaid are forecasting that in 2024, Medicaid will start running out of funding. Although there is little evidence in the trustee’s projections it is still something that needs to be looked as more and more people are getting older and are needing benefits vs a number of people putting in. Every day there are 10,000 people turning 65 or older. Now that the Affordable Care Act has been implemented it is allowing for elderly to be able to get yearly exams and wellness checks.
As you know immigration is a huge problem in the United States, data shows that over the past year’s Texas has increases its size dramatically. In the website Texas State Historical Association states data that since the year 1850 Texas started out with the population of 212,592 and on 2010 the population growth increased to 25,145,561. However, we do not know the exact number of these people that are not American Citizens. In the Washington Post it states that “there are more than 11 million immigrants living, working and establishing families in the United States illegally”. Texas has approximately 1,650,000 almost close to 1.7 million of people who are illegal immigrants that are residents here.
Rising Health care costs: how to control it In U.S., spending on health care has been growing at a faster pace than spending in rest of economy since 1960s. The government was spending 4.7% of the gross domestic product (GDP) at that time, which grew to 16.2% in 2007, and is expected to rise to 20% of GDP by 2017(1). Without any drastic measures, according to the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), these numbers will project to 25% of GDP in 2025, 30% by 2035, and 49% in 2082 (2). The major components of U.S. health care spending are hospitals (31%), physician and clinical services (21%), pharmaceuticals (10%), and other spending (25%) (3). Technological change and progress has attributed to almost half of the growth in medical spending in recent years (4).
In a period of 30 years the poverty rate of immigrants across America more than doubled. In 1970 of the 4,605 immigrants in this country 12% percent or 552 immigrants were in poverty. By the year 2000 of the 112,016 immigrants in this country 44% or 49,287 were in poverty. Although the change seems grand, due to the rising amount of immigrants in this country the amounts closely replicate each other. In conclusion immigration in the United States is an ever-changing thing.
Over the past ten years, UNHS has increased significantly in the United States of America (Krishnan, 2009). As of 2011, Houston, Bradham, Muñoz, and Guignard stated more than 97% of all newborns receive a hearing screening before leaving their place of birth. Updates of UNHS has shown age of identification has continued to decrease since implementation of UNHS programs (Houston et al., 2011). UNHS has been noted to be successful in hospitals and birthing centers; however, an estimated 50% of infants referred from UNHS do not receive a timely diagnosis and intervention services. Shown in the Houston et al., 2011 study infants with hearing loss may be receiving services without it being documented in the tracking system.
The explosion of the Second World War gave way to the most defined era of the 20th century. In the wake of a war torn decade, the growing prospect of opportunity spurred the inception of the “Baby Boom”. Millions of individuals were introduced into our world at a rate never seen before in our nation’s history, and as does every generation, these millions of Baby Boomers are aging at an unprecedented rate also. The average lifespan of individuals has steadily increased since the postwar decades with the much advancement in healthcare. The majority of today 's population is expected to live into their eighties.
Sridhar, R., Naughton, B., (2010), stated that the U.S. population is aging and associated with this group is an increase in the incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases, with consequential increase in health care expenditure. They stated that in 2000, the total Medicare expenditure was $239.5 billion. By the year 2010, this expenditure is estimated to increase to $519 billion. The concept of aging in place is one method proposed to reduce cost, while maintaining the quality of life for the elderly. The elderly will be supported in their environment of their choice while avoiding institutionalization and or nursing home
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) published a report in 2000 that estimated there were around 100,000 deaths each year in American hospitals from medical errors. IOM results were mostly based on errors of comission. In ICUs, the errors of omission are much larger as compared to the errors of commission. The number of patients dying becomes even higher if these errors are included. The follow-up report by IOM in 2001, provided a direction towards the need for making the basic changes in the health care delivery.