There are few common risk factors of adolescent depression. Parental separation, sexual abuse, experience of shame, gender, relationship with peers have been known as the common risk factors for adolescent depression. Aslund, Nilsson, Starrin and Sjoberg (2007) argues that psychosocial factor, such as parental separation, sexual abuse, shaming experiences, and unemployments of the parents can be the risk factors for adolescent depression. For this study, 5,048 adolescent from Sweden were surveyed about depression, separation of parents, sexual abuse, unemployment of parents, and their shaming experiences. The results of the survey found that these psychosocial factors were affecting adolescent depression.
The article hints that depression is one of the most compelling diseases challenging human life in the contemporary world. Its prevalence rate is shooting yearly among the young populations. Individuals who encounter depression during their childhood and early adolescence are likely to have persistent depressive disorder during their adulthood. Childhood depression is an issue of significant concern since it challenges the wellbeing and development of children and it may project severe consequences in adolescence and adulthood. Multiple factors are attributed to depression in children and these include interpersonal relations, self-esteem or anxiety.
Wherein unemployed (11%) participants greatly suffer from social issues compare to those who are employed (6%), student (1%), and self-employed (0%) participants. Unemployed participants spend a lot of their time inside the home than those who have job. In regards, unemployed workers were twice as likely as their employed counterparts to experience psychological problems (Paul & Moser, 2009; Belle, D. et.al,2016). The stress of unemployment can lead to changes in family relationships and in outcomes for children (Belle, D. & Bullock, H., 2016). As cited by Belle and Bullock(2016), a meta-analysis conducted by Paul and Moser (2009) reinforces the findings that unemployment was associated with depression, anxiety, psychosomatic symptoms, low subjective well-being, and poor self-esteem.
A research done by Mullis and Chapman (2000) on association among gender, age, self-esteem and found that adolescents having high self- esteem focused on problem solving and emotion focused strategy was used by those adolescents having low self-esteem. Arslan, Hamarta and Uslu (2010) studied relationship between life
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The impact of making inappropriate comparisons in cross-cultural research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1005-1018. doi:10.1037/a0013193 Hui, C. H., & Triandis, H. C. (1985). Measurement in cross-cultural psychology: A review and comparison of strategies. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 16(2), 131. Leong, F. T. L., Leung, K., & Cheung, F. M. (2010).
The report has a table that showed the mean levels of physical aggression and hyperactivity by age from 1 ½ to 5 years of age. One model that is used in this article was the family stress which states that economic hardship has a high level of stress (Conger & Donnellan, 2007). In that model, family stress had less nurturing and parental involvement. There were other factors such as depression marital conflict, anxiety, anger and alienation. Variables, potential mediators and control variables.
Neuropsychology has found correlations between the human mind and internal thought processes and behaviour, (Van Der Kolk, 2014). There is an established link between co-rumination and depression, (Dam, Roelofs and Muris, 2014). A study of Irish adolescents found that sixteen year old females has the lowest levels of contentment and optimism (Dooley and Fitzgerald, 2012). These adolescents are potential clients. A study of mental illness in North Dublin found twenty-seven per cent had anxiety disorders, (Cannon, Coughlan, Clarke, Harley, Kelleher, Connor, Fitzpatrick and Lynch, 2015).
It’s a family one too.” (Marano, 2002) the connection between depression and parental or familial factors is undeniable. (Hammen, 2009; Sander & McCarty, 2006; Kim, Lee, Suh & Kim, 2013; Ghamari, 2012). Depression may definitely be heritable from the parents but it can also be from various factors of familial, marital and parental discord in the family. (Sander & McCarty, 2006; Hammen, 2009). The importance of family function to depression was proven in a one way analyses of variance in the scores of 162 5th and 6th grade students in Korea on the Smilkstein’s family APGAR score and Kovac’s Children’s depression Inventory.