Literature Review On Nursing Socialization

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Review of the Literature
The shortage of people entering professional nursing, nurses’ dissatisfaction, and high turnover of newly licensed registered nurses are issues of concern. The national shortage in the nursing workforce highlights the critical importance of encouraging nurses to remain in practice. Evidence suggests that a shortage of nurses is detrimental not only to quality of patient care, but also to staff morale, which in turn affects staff retention (Wilson, 2006). The socialization and assimilation of newly licensed nurses into the healthcare system is a pivotal event that influences the retention of nurses
(Aiken, Clarke, Sloane, Sochalaski, & Silber, 2002). Professional socialization and work readiness are contributing factors
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Professional socialization, a potential buffer to the effects of reality shock, includes the acquisition of knowledge, skills, identity, occupational traits, values, norms, and self-concept (Mamchur & Myrick,
2003). The process of professional socialization, from career choice to transition to enculturation to the practice setting is influenced by others, especially other nurses (Beck,
2000; Hinds & Harley, 2001). It is this initial professional socialization of nurses that will determine the success or failure of retaining new nurses in the healthcare workplace. The increasing complexity of health services and the acuity of patient care create an expectation by the healthcare organization that the new nurse will “hit the ground running” (Cowin & Hengstberger-Sims, 2006, p. 61). Furthermore, Cowin and
Hengstberger-Sims believe the workplace expects newly licensed nurses to quickly fulfill their potential as knowledgeable workers, but the health organization remunerates newly licensed nurses at the lowest possible pay scale. These researchers asserted that incongruencies such as high level of stress related to responsibility and high
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Ingersoll et al. found relationships between favorable perceptions of work group combined with increased levels of job satisfaction to nurses’ organizational commitment. Nurses who perceived their work groups as
1492 The Qualitative Report November 2010 supportive and cohesive were found to be less critical of their organizations and more likely to remain attached to their organizations. The level of commitment nurses have to their organizations has been shown to be correlated with work group cohesion (Chan &
Morrison, 2000; Ingersoll et al.). Positive work relationships, effective nurse-physician collaboration, and high levels of work group cohesion have been found to contribute to higher job satisfaction and have been found to be significant determinants of nurses’ intentions to remain employed (Chan & Morrison; Ingersoll et al.; Shader, Broome,
Broome, West, & Nash, 2001). Nurse burnout has been found to be inversely associated with both job satisfaction and nurses’ intentions to remain employed (Aiken et al., 2002; Shader et al., 2001).
Aiken, et al. found that 43% of nurses who reported high levels of burnout and dissatisfaction also intended to leave their jobs within one year. Shader et al.

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