Bullying has frequently being associated with a stressful and negative working environment. Numerous work environmental and organisational factors can be considered to produce occupational stress which could possibly increase the risk of bullying or conflict among employees. A stressful working environment may result in interpersonal conflicts and peer bullying may be the outcome (Einarsen et al, 1994). Stress and frustration are also seen as causes of bullying and stress is often a result of poor organisation and management within the workplace. High levels of stress can result in managers taking out their stress on employees.
It is mean, stress will occur when there is any adjustment you have to make in your life such as work overload or a nagging boss, computer problems or time deadlines, downsizing and mergers, accelerating rates of change and world event. Stress is cause by stressor. Stressor is a potentially harmful or threatening external event or situation. There are two type of stressor:- 1) Eustress 2) Distress
There are many affects that workplace bullying can have on women. The Washington State Department of Labor and Industries (2011) states that the targeted victims of bullying experience significant physical and mental health problems. Bullying can cause them to have low self-esteem, work withdrawal, sickness absence, sleep disturbances, depression, self-blame, family tension and stress. These effects can be long term depending on the individual situations and how the victims cope with the bullying. Bullying can also affect the organization due to replacing staff members if victims leave, having to train new employees, low work productivity and even potential legal actions (p. 2).
Employees are facing high level of stress & frustration in their respective private and professional lives roles are same which are imposed on other person in other part of world. If at all work-life conflicts decrease to the employee then the productivity of the organization automatically increase in the organization. When the worker’s desires and wants are not obtained by the organization, then in organisation work conflicts raises and this is very hazardous for both company and the employees. What is work conflict ? Work conflict is a inter-dependant conflict among both professional and private life .
Our study posits emotional exhaustion as a mediating mechanism that influences job stress towards deviance. According to Hallberg and Sverke (2004), individuals’ psychological resources begin to deplete when exposed to sustained work stress and the inability to manage the sources of stress and the effects that follows. Friedman (2002 –update) further explained that this situation entails individuals to experience strain physically, psychologically and emotionally. Furthermore, extreme circumstances cause individuals to experience burnout (Thompson & Page, 1992), which is a psychological state shaped by sustained job stress, and one of its dimensions identified being emotional exhaustion (Maslach et al., 2001). Daily impacts of job stress effectively drains employee’s energy, which proceeds to emotional exhaustion (Houkes, Janseen, DeJonge & Bakker, 2003).
4. Social Consequences & effects of Workplace Bullying 4.1 What Are the Consequences of Bullying in the workplace? Workplace bullying has clear significant and adverse consequences for the employees, the organizations and society more broadly. Below, we discuss two broad categories of consequences of workplace bullying: 4.2 Human Costs Targets of workplace bullying experience significant detriments to their health and wellbeing. These individuals report increased psychological distress including anxiety, depression, negative emotions, and overt anger.
What is work stress? According to Beehr and McGrath, circumstances and events in a situation whether physical or psychosocial stimulant can create a reaction. In these situations if the stressors are not managed with, it will cause negative impacts. (Beehr & McGrath, 1990) What is burnout? Job burnout is a syndrome in response to continual interpersonal stressors.
Discrimination is a big struggle managers in the human resource department face at the workplace, especially since the consequences are high, and the company’s reputation is at stake. Discrimination usually occurs during hiring, firing, training, job assigning, demoting, and promoting. Discrimination in the workplace is against the law and occurs when an employer judges an employee due to human factors such as: age, race, disability, compensation, genetic information, harassment, origin, pregnancy, religion, retaliation, or physical appearance. Disability discrimination is the act of harassing an employee due to his or her disability, or when job applicants are requested to answer questions about medical conditions or take medical exams. It
However, some factors at workplace are more likely to lead to stress than others. A person can experience work-related stress as a result of various factors. The Institute of Work, Health & Organizations, University of Nottingham, UK has classified stress related hazards at work into work content and work context as mentioned in HSE Policy for Preventing & Managing Stress in the Workplace, 2012. Work Context– Potential Hazardous Conditions: • Organizational culture: This includes factors like Poor communication, low levels of support for problem solving and personal development and lack of definition of organizational objectives. • Role in organization including Role ambiguity and role conflict; responsibility for people unclear.
Representatives may encounter a scope of physical, mental, and behavioral outcomes as a result of employment anxiety and organizations may in turn be affected by low production quality and quantity, internal conflicts, lack of cooperation, high turnover, and costs associated with sick leave and worker disability. The majorities of studies of investigations of work site anxiety administration projects have concentrated on the usage and assessment of anxiety administration programs in individual organizations. several recent reviews have provided an overview of different types of stress management programs and their effectiveness in modifying health- and job-related outcomes such as absenteeism . The authors discovered associations with stress management programs to be more prone to offer projects that support worker prosperity, well being, and expertise improvement than those without stress management
Workplace bullies constantly involve overwhelmingly negative actions at work including the need to control, humiliate and embarrass to cause some kind of pain or personal distress. It can be associated with office politics, unclear expectations, dishonesty, withheld information, etc. Not only does workplace bullying have a connection with abusive supervision, it also has an increase with negative workplace performances. By promoting ethical practices, it could reduce workplace bullying and abnormality among co-workers. Agervold and Mikkelsen (2004), in one of the first studies, found that employees who were frequently exposed to bullying reported less job control, work tasks which were more unclear or contradictory, a management style which was less employee-oriented, and fewer social contacts with co-workers.