Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst. It forms a complex with HBr and extracts it from the aqueous phase into the organic phase where the alkene is. This dehydrates the acid, making it more reactive so that the addition reaction is possible. Rapid stirring is required in order to maximize the surface area
Some research has indicated that a lack of catalase can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. It seems that some other molecules within living organisms are able to sufficiently break down hydrogen peroxide—enough to sustain life. The toxic nature of hydrogen peroxide also makes it a powerful disinfectant. And in conclusion from the information ive found ,catalase functions best at around 37 degrees Celsius as the temperature gets colder or hotter than that, the ability to work will denature and the enzyme will be
An investigation of the relationship between different concentrations of Sodium Chloride and the rate of reaction of Amylase Marjolijn Hoogevoorst Yeshvanth Prabakar IS12 Word count: 2222 words Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy. Amylase is a type of digestive enzyme found in the pancreases and saliva of humans. Amylase breaks down starch into sugar, allowing large molecules to be digested easily. To function efficiently, amylase requires certain conditions. The effect of different sodium chloride concentrations in this on the rate of reaction of amylase will be investigated in this experiment along with the use of starch and iodine.
Following its release from food, the non-haem iron is present in its ferric form in the stomach. Although ferric iron remains soluble in an acidic environment such as the stomach, once it passes into the small intestine it is exposed to alkaline juices excreted from the pancreas into the intestine. In this more alkaline environment, the ferric iron may form a ferric hydroxide complex, which usually aggregates and precipitates, thus becoming difficult to absorb. To prevent this, ferric iron must be converted to its ferrous form which remains soluble at an alkaline pH. There are enzymes located on the intestinal brush border known as ferrireductases which reduce ferric iron to the more soluble ferrous state.
In the alkali-catalyzed process, the presence of free fatty acid (greater than 1 mg/g KOH) and water in the oil can cause high amounts of undesirable soap formation, also consuming some quantity of alkaline catalyst and reduces the eﬀectiveness, all of which result in a lower conversion. Therefore, for the feedstock with high free fatty acids, it is essential to have a pretreatment stage before subjecting it to transesteriﬁcation process.  1.2 Pretreatment Process for Waste Cooking Oil Pretreatment of waste cooking oil consists of physical treatment for removing the suspended solid contaminants and chemical treatment processes mainly for deacidiﬁcation. A ﬂow sheet giving the diﬀerent approaches for pretreatment of waste cooking oil is shown in Figure 2. Issariyakul et al.
Record results to determine if lactic acid decreases or increases the pH of the water. 18. If the lactic acid increases the pH of the water, it shows that lactic acid increases the pH of the blood and if lactic acid decreases the pH of the water, it shows that lactic acid will decrease the pH of the blood. 19. Stir distilled water in the beaker
The dissolving of a drug is highly dependent on the acidity of the solution, in this case our stomach acid. The general rule of thumb is that the pH (1-5) be low in order for the capsule to dissolve quickly. The speed at which the dose dissolved also depend on its form, and can be either tablet, capsule, powder, or etc. If we use a tablet for example, the manufacturer may add starch in order to make the pill swell when water is added which could speed up the process. On the other hand, some processes may require a slower process, or prolong the effect of the drug.
An acid is considered to be a proton donor, this means it dissociates into hydrogen ions in a solution (Wikipedia), this will correspond to it having a sour taste and sharp odour. A base is considered to be a proton accepter, this means it dissociates into hydroxide ions in a solution (Wikipedia), this will correspond to it having a bitter taste and no scent. Acids add more hydrogen ions to a solution, while bases remove hydrogen ions from a solution, so the pH can be adjusted to any value wanted by carefully combining acids and bases together, if a vinegar solution that is strongly acidic is present, the pH can be raised by slowing adding a base like ammonia which will remove some of the extra hydrogen ions from the solution. If just a little was added the pH might change from 2 to 5, making a weaker acid, but by adding a little more base enough hydrogen ions is removed to raise the pH to 7 or neutralize the solution, also by adding even more base more hydrogen ions can be removed, raising the pH until the solution becomes a strong base (Coolscience). Experiments are replicated too ensure accurate results and to verify uncertain results it also helps to refine experimental observations (ochemonline).
Respiratory alkalosis occurs when a person is breathing to fast are deep and your CO2 levels will drop to low. When this happen, it will cause the blood to rise and become to alkaline. Treatment is chosen by the condition that may cause respiratory alkalosis. When the blood becomes too acidic this lead to respiratory acidosis. Respiratory alkalosis treatment or not bad unless the pH level is 7.5.
Objective: I will be combining calcium carbonate with hydrochloric acid as a case study to measure the rate of chemical reaction. This gives us the equation CaCO3 + 2HCl H2O + CaCl2 + CO2 Background Information: Several factors are already known which increase (or decrease) the rate of reaction. An increase in concentration of the acid allows for a greater number of hydrochloric acid molecules colliding into those of calcium carbonate. Although not every single particle would result in a successful reaction, increasing the number of particles will increase the total number of reactions. Another method is to increase the surface area of the solute.