According to the series of test that my group ran for our unknown specimen, we had a match with the bacteria known as Alcaligenes Faecalis. This bacterium belongs to one of the major group of gram-negative bacteria (Phylum Proteobacteria). Alcaligenes Faecalis (Genus, species) is a rod shaped (bacillus), 0.5-1.2 x 1.0-3.0 µm, round with scalloped margin (colony configuration growth), motile (with one to nine peritrichous flagella), gram-negative, non-fermentative bacteria, obligate aerobic, having oxygen as the principal terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain (ETC).
Many organisms use energy to perform their cellular functions. That energy comes from the energy that is stored in food then converted to adenosine triphosphate or ATP. ATP can be obtained with or without oxygen, aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide (CO2) as a by-product while anaerobic respiration produces Ethanol (C2H6O) or Lactic acid (C3H6O3). In aerobic respiration the “CO2 produced during cellular respiration can combine with water to produce carbonic acid.” While CO2 is produced, the amount of CO2 produced is different depending on the organisms, in this case crayfish. To test the changes in pH, NaOH is used to neutralize the carbonic acid produced by the crayfish, by which the
I have conducted an experiment on whether the Conodoguinet Creek is either polluted or healthy. The Conodoguinet Creek can get polluted by livestock. The livestock could possibly use the creek as a water source or as a restroom. Eutrophication, which is excessive richness of nutrients in any form of body of water, frequently due to runoff from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life and death of animal life from lack of oxygen, is another reason why the creek could be polluted. Fertilizers are used in farming to provide crops with nutrients, but they also play a big role in the Eutrophication process. If too much fertilizer is used, it leaches from the soil in
The Alka Seltzer mixture contains an excess amount of the bicarbonate ion which is vital for the buffering action taking place within the solution. This is because the excess bicarbonate ion present, allows the solution to act as a buffer as it’s able to react with small quantities of acids and bases added to the solution, therefore resisting a change in PH by neutralising them.
The results do not support the hypothesis that a higher surface area to volume ratio would result in sulphuric acid being diffused into the agar cubes in the shortest amount of time. This is evident in the results as the exact opposite to what was predicted occurred. Instead of the smallest cube with the largest surface area to volume ratio of 1cm3 having the quickest diffusion rate, it conversely took the longest at 0.092 cm3 per second, whilst the 2cm3 cube with 0.0384 cm3 per second took the least amount of time. This directly refutes the hypothesis. There was also no consistent trend evident in the results. Between the two largest blocks of 2cm3 and 3cm3, there was only a 0.00243 cm3 per second, however, and in contrast to the hypothesis,
Acids are proton donors in chemical reactions which increase the number of hydrogen ions in a solution while bases are proton acceptors in reactions which reduce the number of hydrogen ions in a solution. Therefore, an acidic solution has more hydrogen ions than a basic solution; and basic solution has more hydroxide ions than an acidic solution. Acid substances taste sour. They have a pH lower than 7 and turns blue litmus paper into red. Meanwhile, bases are slippery and taste bitter. Its pH is greater than 7 and turns red litmus paper into blue.
The term fermentation refers to the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat (wikipedia). Sugars are converted to ethyl alcohol when fermentation happens. In this experiment we determined if yeast cells undergo fermentation when placed in a closed flask with no oxygen. Glucose and yeast are mixed together in a closed flask and allowed to incubate for about one hour. Then, tests are performed to determine if the products of aerobic and anaerobic respiration are present in the flasks.The citric acid cycle consists of a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of ATP (Biology). The tests detect the presence of carbon dioxide and ethanol. Carbon dioxide should be present irrespective of the type of respiration taking place, but ethanol is present only if fermentation has occurred. Another factor that can indicate whether fermentation occurred or cellular respiration occurred is the amount of glucose utilized during incubation.Fermentation uses more glucose because the process of fermentation is much less efficient than cellular respiration in terms of energy production per molecule of glucose used. The open flask (control) and the closed
Strong acids and strong acids both dissociate completely in water forming ions. However, strong acids donate a proton to form H3O+ along with a conjugate base and strong bases accept a proton to form OH- along with a conjugate acid. The chemical behavior of acids and bases are opposite. When they are together, their ions cancel out and form a neutral solution. In this experiment, HCl and NaOH will react to form NaOH and H2O with these two steps:
The topic of this research paper will cover over Ocean Acidification and the effects on marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification is the decrease in pH levels of the Earth 's oceans, due to overbearing carbon dioxide being brought by the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide is drawn by seawater, where the chemical reactions take place, which minimize the pH levels in the ocean, the carbonate levels and the important calcium carbonate which these sea creatures need. When carbon dioxide disperses in this ocean, it causes the levels of acidity to rise towards the the surface, where most shell growth in marine animals have been stopped and has created the cause of reproductive disorders in multiple fish. Part of the problem with ocean acidification is human activity. Ever since the industrial revolution commenced, around one third of the carbon dioxide released by human interference has been absorbed by the ocean, which is one of the reasons of the drastic change in climate as well. Without the ocean absorbing carbon dioxide, the carbon dioxide n the atmosphere would be drastically higher, with possibly increasing the levels of climate change.The point of the research is to see how will the pH affect the organisms in the marine ecosystem and does carbonation affect an organism’s mass and form. Many organisms that are part of the marine food chain are going to be affected by ocean acidification due the levels of acidity deteriorating the calcium carbonate within the animal. It turns out
Within the current investigation, the effects of the surface area of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) in combination with Hydrochloric acid (HCl) upon its rate of reaction. CaCO3, commonly referred to as limestone, is an organic substance and is, in a sense, the crystallised “carbonic salt” of the element, calcium2. In addition to being a salt, the pH level of Calcium Carbonate is 9.91, and it is therefore, a basic substance, due to the fact that it is comprised of a pH level higher than 7, which is neutral3.
This experiment is the determination of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) content in toothpaste with the use of back titration while demonstrating quantitative transfer of solids and liquids. A accurately weighed quantity of toothpaste was dissolved in excess volumes of HCl. This solution is then titrated with NaOH to find the volume of the excess HCl. The volume of HCl reacted, which is found by substracting the volume of given HCl with the volume of excess HCl reacted, can be further manipulated with mole fractions to find the mass of CaCO3 and thus the CaCO3 content in toothpastes.
Titration process is used in an acid-base experiment in order to determine the concentrations of solutions of acids and bases. Through the titration process, we are able to identify physical changes to the mixture such as the colour change to indicate the end point of the experiment. For example, the colour changes of phenolphthalein from colourless to pink and methyl orange from red to orange and subsequently yellow. Acids produce hydrogen ions and bases produce hydroxide ions. This causes the indicator to change colour due to the colour difference from the undissociate molecules.