Eggplant Literature Review

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE Eggplant Solanum melongena L. commonly known as aubergine, is an important vegetable crop of tropical and temperate parts of the world. It is a good source of vitamins and minerals (particularly iron). Eggplant has been used in traditional medicines, the tissue extracts have been used for treatment of asthma, bronchitis, cholera and dysuria; fruits and leaves are beneficial in lowering blood cholesterol. Eggplant is a native of the Indian sub-continent but Arabs introduced eggplant to the west during the 15th century (Kashyap et al., 2002). Cultivated varieties of eggplant are susceptible to a wide kind of pests and pathogens including plant parasitic nematodes which infection resulted in an average yield loss of between…show more content…
have considerable potential in the biocontrol of plant parasitic nematodes. The genus Bacillus consists of a heterogenic group of gram positive rods, are widely distributed in nature, easy to multiply and are nonpathogenic. Bacillus species are outstanding biocontrol agents that are used to manage root-knot nematodes as they show effective root colonization, multiple modes of action and promising ability to sporulate. They live as endophytes within the plant and benefit the host plant by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them. An important characteristic of this bacterium genus is its ability to produce endospores when environmental conditions are stressful that allow them to survive for extended periods under adverse environmental conditions. Lytic enzymes viz., chitinase and glucanase are known to be produced by Bacillus. Cyclic lipopeptides of the surfactin, iturin and fengycin families are important metabolites produced by Bacillus species. The enzymes and antibiotics produced by B. subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn have been reported to have antagonistic effects on pathogenic microorganisms. They impart successful biocontrol activity by direct suppression of phytopathogens and by further protecting the host plant through stimulating systemic resistance (Kavitha et al., 2012). The numbers of Bacillus are varying from 106 in cooler regions to 107 or more per gram in warmer regions. B. subtilis, B. mycoides, B. pumihis, B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis and B. firmus are wide range of Bacillus present in rhizosphere soil which affects plant parasitic nematodes (Lin and Dong, 2008). While the genus Pseudomonas is a group of common, nonpathogenic saprophytes that colonize soil, water and plant surface environments. It is a common gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium. As its name implies, it secretes a soluble greenish fluorescent pigment called fluorescen, particularly under conditions of low iron

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