ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS Based on the experiment conducted by El-Sheshtawy et al. (2015) the sulphate reducing bacterial utilizes sulphate and carbon as energy sources in terms of growth requirements; this bacterium plays a negative role in the microbial enhanced oil recovery. Bacillus licheniformis produced biosurfactants that act as antimicrobial agents against the sulphate reducing bacteria, thus reducing the growth of the sulphate reducing bacteria at different concentrations. This bacterium can be used as a bio-control agent against sulphate reducing bacteria to control the production of hydrogen sulphide which results in the souring of the crude oil. Gomaa (2013) further showed that biosurfactants can be used to treat many diseases and therapeutic agents, since biosurfactants are anti-adhesive to pathogens.
The bacilli can be carried by droplet infection. DROPLET INFECTION : With the process of coughing and sneezing, droplets may be ejected right onto the face. Bacilli thus intiated easily take up their place in host without losing much of its vitality. Human type can flourish best when they are immediately carried from one mass to another. They begin to lose their vitality outside human body although they are known to cling to dust, screen, clothes, utensils of the room for several weeks.
Paulo Roberto Martins Bonilha (2006) et. al... Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (EC 22.214.171.124) is an enzyme that produces cyclodextrins from starch via an intramolecular transglycosylation reaction. An alkalophilic Bacillus strain, isolated from cassava peels, was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. CGTase production by this strain was better when potato starch was used as carbon source, followed by cassava starch and amylopectin. Glucose and amylose, on the other hand, acted as synthesis repressors.
Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria, an anaerobic / microaerophilic, non-sporulation, low in G+C content gram-positive bacteria which belong to the phylum Firmicutes . Lactobacillus colonizes the human gut and confers various health benefits to humans. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (North Carolina Food Microbiology) strain is marketed as probiotic microbe which is routinely used in dietary supplements and fermented dairy products . L. acidophilus is naturally occurring bacteria in human gut, intestines, mouth or female genitals. The clinical applications of L. acidophilus includes prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea , treatment for allergies , as an antagonist against Campylobacter jejuni  and enteroaggregative Escherichia
Bacteria that remained attached to the borosilicate base of the chamber well was visualized at a magnification of 1000x using Leica DMLB fluorescence microscope equipped with a standard Blue/Green/Red filters set (excitation: 400/20, 495/15, 570/50 nm) and with a charge coupled device (CCD) digital camera. At least three independent adhesion experiments were performed for each strain. Quantification of adhered cells was performed by counting attached GFP-expressing bacteria using ImageJ  and the ITCN plug-in
Materials and methods Isolation and identification of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus thuringiensis was isolated from raw milk (Taif, KSA) on nutrient agar at 37oC for overnight. The supernatant of the bacterial isolate was screened for synthesis of AgNPs. The bacterial isolate was morphologically and biochemically characterized according to Bergy’s Manual of Systemic Bacteriology. Also, this bacterial isolate was further identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. The culture was maintained on a nutrient agar plate/slants at 4°C and as glycerol stocks 40% at −70°C.
Then, the polypeptides are further converted into amino acids. The bacterial cells can then take up these amino acids and use them in their metabolic processes. Gelatin hydrolysis test is helpful in identifying and differentiating species of Bacillus, Clostridium, Proteus, Pseudomonas and Serratia . Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) production test is used for the detection of H2S gas produced by an organism. It is used
Eg: bacteria, viruses OBLIGATORY PARASITES Cannot survive without host FACULTATIVE PARASITES Can survive without host MICROPARASITES Small size, small life cycle, reproduces inside the host MACROPARASITES Large size, do not need reproduce inside the host Example: Lichens, which is the association between fungi and algae. Fungal partner is mycobiont and the algal is phycobiont. Being a phycobiont, algae provides the fungi with the food in exchange of the protection from the high light intensities, water and minerals from the fungi. Lamprey, a vertebrate parasite which obtains its food by attaching to other fishes. It has a circular toothfilled mouth, thus sucks blood and other bodily fluids.
Result and discussion The sequence similarity of target sequence of buffalo spermadhesin-1 protein with other bovidiae sub family like caprinea and antilopinea was similarity in blastn search. They are shows the more than 65% sequence similarity. The physiochemical parameters of spermadhesin-1 protein were predicted by the help of Prot Param tool. The Prot Param describe the various parameters like molecular weight, theoretical PI, instability index (II), aliphatic index (AI), and grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY). The physiochemical properties of spermadhesin-1 molecule of Bubalis bubalis showed that the molecular weight of protein is 15339.6 contain 136 amino acid residues.
Seven strains of Alicyclobacillus were cultured independently with Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius medium (AAM) broth in conical flasks with 100 mL headspace and caped with hydrophobic fluoropore (PTEF) membrane incubated for 24¬–48 h on shaker (Fine mixer SH2000 orbital shaker, Korea) at 120 rpm with their specific growing conditions and enriched media (Table 1). Then, 5mL of each bacterial strain culture from first round shaking transferred into a new liquid medium for a second shaking culture. One hundred fifty milliliters (150 mL) of each bacterial cultivation liquid was harvested at their stationary phase with centrifugation at 3600 g for 20 min at 4°C. The supernatants were discarded; the leftover bacterial cells (106cells/mL) were washed