Two clear solutions are mixed, producing a new clear solution. Then, after a period of several seconds, the solution turns dark blue. As mentioned, chemical kinetics measures how fast a reaction is occurring. To perform the iodine clock reaction in this science fair project, you will mix potassium iodide, hydrochloric acid, starch, thiosulfate and hydrogen peroxide. The time it takes for the reaction mix to turn blue will be measured with a stopwatch.
History of Phthalocyanine: Phthalocyanine which is not found in nature is derived from the Greek term for naphtha ( rock oil) and cyanine ( dark blue) . The name was first used by Prof Reginald Linstead of the Imperial College Industry. It’s used as a colorant agent in industry because it’s cheap, robust and has an intense absorption at long wavelength of the visible spectrum. The compound was accidentally discovered in 1907 by Braun and Tcherniac who recorded a highly coloured compound after heating ortho-cyanobenzamide at high temperature. [2,3] In 1927 Diesbach and Von der Weild of Fribourg University, carried out a reflex reaction using ortho-dibromobenzene with cyanide and obtained a blue coloured compound with 23% yield.
Dye Solution Composition: • Dye particles (0.0036 gm.) • Ethanol Solution (10 ml) Example of dye molecule that is used in DSSC: • Ttriscarboxy-rutheniumterpyridine [Ru(4,4,4"-(COOH)3-terpy)(NCS)3] (Black dye) • 1-ethyl-3 methylimidazolium tetrocyanoborate [EMIB(CN)4] • Copper-diselenium [Cu(In,GA)Se2] MK Dye material was used however for this experiment. After preparing the dye solution, we place the glass samples into Dye sol. for 24 hours under dark conditions. This is done due to the consideration of the samples being light sensitive under room conditions.
The calculation is used to convert the number of atoms into moles. Correction: 1. The chemical formula for zinc hydroxide is Zn(OH)4 2. The number of grams it said to convert is 0.45 g 3. This is the correct calculation 0.45 g x 1 / 133.408 = 0.00337 mole Zn(OH)4 23.
Figure 3 shows the Infrared spectrum for sugar cane bagasse heat treated at 700 and 900 OC for 7hrs. From figure 3, it can be observed that the FTIR spectrum of suger sugar cane bagasse is containing many bands . These bands are symptomatic of the general disorder in the silicate network mainly due to awide distribution of Qn units (poly-merization in the glass structure, where n denotes the number of bridging oxygen) occurring in the glass samples  . From Fig. 3 (the spectrum of the sugar cane bagasse sample), it can be observed that the fundamental absorption broad bands are at 1000-1050cm-1, at 900-950cm-1 and at 650-780 cm-1.
The absorption band at 1627.8 cm-1 referred to C=C stretching vibration which is possible to be derived from aromatic ring in amino acid, while the absorption band in 1529.4 cm-1 referred to N-H bending vibration of amine which is possible to be derived from the L-dopa. An intense enough absorption band at absorbance area of 1400.2 cm-1 referred to C-H bending vibration of sp2 carbon, which is possible to be derived from the aromatic ring of amino acid. The weaker absorption band at 1288.4 cm-1 corresponded to =C-O stretching vibration of aromatic compounds, and the absorption band at 1074.3-1118.6 cm-1 referred to C-O stretching vibration of amino
3)are responsible for the manganese biosorption.When compare the two spectra before and after adsorption, as shown in the (Fig. 5) spectra from before metal adsorption, the spectra display a number of absorption peaks, indicating the nature of the biomass of T.cordifolia. The bands observed at 3419.73 cm-1 and 2922 cm-1 bonded –OH group and aliphatic -C-H group. The peak around 1637.15 cm-1 corresponds to the –C=O group. The peak observed at 1515.53 cm-1, 1431.56 cm-1could beassigned to aromatic -C=C- weak bands, the another peak 1235.23 cm-1 and 1074.93 cm-1shows the strong peak of presence of acid and alcohol
Before 1856, all dyes were obtained from natural resources. The first synthetic dye, Mauveine, was accidentally discovered by William Henry Perkin in 1856 while he was looking for a cure for malaria. Different dyes are made of different dye molecules. Dyes have colour because they absorb light in the visible spectrum (400–700 nm), have at least one chromophore, have a conjugated system (a structure with alternating double and single bonds), and exhibit resonance
The pH was found to be 7, which is in the range of a healthy person’s pH (which is 7.4).Benedict`s solution is made up of alkaline copper sulphate and sodium citrate (blue in colour) (Danson and et al, 1996). When it is put in a hot water bath (boiled) when there are reduced sugars, cupric ion is decreased by sugars changing it into an insoluble red cuprous oxide. The solution will change to yellow, orange, green or red, for rising levels of sugar, and will stay blue if no sugar is detected. If the solutions stay the same (blue), the result is negative. In this experiment, the colour remained blue and thus there were no sugars present in the solution.
They have different values of melting point and boiling point. Diamond has the highest melting point and highest boiling point which are 3550°C and 4830°C respectively. Rock salt has the lowest melting point and lowest boiling point which are 801°C and 1465°C