The purpose of this experiment was to perform a Wittig reaction using two different methods: In method I, 250 mg aldehyde was mixed with 785 mg phosphonium salt in 5 M NaOH solvent. This mixture was stirred for thirty minutes and filter by vacuum filtration for the product. In method 2, 250 mg of aldehyde, 785 mg, benzyltriphenylphosphonium chloride, and 380 mg potassium phosphate tribasic were homogenize with a pestle and mortar. Vacuum filtration was also used in this method to attain the product. The products in both methods were used for recrystallization and TLC.
A brief on Egyptian blue Egyptian blue (cuprorivaite, CaCuSi4O10) was the first synthetic pigment ever produced by man; it is considered a great technology development in ancient Egypt from the 4th Dynasty (c.2613–2494 BC) till the Roman times, this pigment appeared in Egypt during the 3rd millennium BC . This pigment consists of calcium copper tetrasilicate (cuprorivaite, CaCuSi4O10), a blue tabular crystal about 15 μm to 30 μm in length, residual silica (quartz and/or tridymite) and an amorphous silica-rich phase. This synthetic pigment was making by mixing calcium salt (carbonate, sulphate or hydroxide), a copper compound (oxide or malachite), sand (silica) and an alkali flux (sources of alkali could either have been natron from areas
X.Huang et al.  studied gas-phase hydrogenolysis of methyl formate at atmospheric pressure over two type copper based catalyst, copper chromite and skeletal copper. The product where analyzed by GCs with TCD, Porapack Q column and CTR-1. Before use the catalyst was reduced, the skeletal catalyst was heated to 483 K with H2 flown over for 1-2hour, while the copper chromite catalyst was heated to 513 K with H2 flown over for 4 hour. For the experiment the amount of catalyst was around 0,5g skeletal copper and 0,15 g copper chromite.
Carbon dioxide and water in the solution were also clear. Once the solution was completely titrated, Mn7+ ions remained unreduced and changed the color of the solution to pink. The KMnO4 was added to each solution until the oxalate solution reached the end point and changed to an extremely light pink color. The change in volume in the burette of the potassium permanganate recorded in all three trials was used to calculate the moles of oxalate in the 0.100-gram compound, giving the percent composition of the compound. The three trials reacted 27.95 mL, 26.61 mL, and 25.74 mL of potassium permanganate to determine 55.7%, 53.0%, and 51.3% respectively of oxalate in the compound with a 53.3% average.
To prepare an activity series of the metals based on the observations from the above reactions. Apparatus : Spatula, Test tube, 150ml beaker Materials : Magnesium ribbon, phenolphthalein indicator, 6M HCl, Gra Procedure : The Group 2A Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals-Magnesium and Calcium 1. A piece of magnesium ribbon was acquired. A test tube is filled up with 5ml of water. A few drops of phenolphthalein indicator is added into the test tube that was filled with 5ml of water.
7. Empirical Formula for copper sulfide:Cu2S In order to determine the empirical formulas, the mass in grams is converted to moles. Average mass of copper: 1.24g Cu Average mass of sulfur: 0.28g S 1.24g Cu X 1 mol Cu/ 63.55g Cu = 0.0195mol Cu 0.28g S X 1 mol S/ 32.07g S = 0.0087mol S Then, to find the smallest whole number ratio, we divided each number of moles by the smallest number. The ratio is 2Cu:1S, so the empirical formula is Cu2S 0.0195mol Cu / 0.0087mol S= 2 0.0087mol S / 0.0087mol S = 1 8. Balanced chemical equation for the formation of copper sulfide from copper and sulfur.
The blue colour of hydrate CuSO4 turns white at the end of the heating process. Base of the crucible becomes black, indicates that there is soot produced. Determine The Precision Of Data by Calculating Mean or average of the data, x ̅ =(total reading)/(number of reading) Mean, x ̅ (Mass of H₂O in the hydrated sample 1 g)
Synthesis of nanoparticles 1mM aqueous, and ethanol solution of silver nitrate was prepared for synthesis for silver nanoparticles. 1ml of plant crude extracts was added upon the various concentrations of silver nitrate solution such as 1mM, 3mM and 5mM and abrupt color changes indicates silver synthesis. 4.8 Oxalic acid preparation: The 100 mg of oxalic acid was weighed and dissolved in 100 ml of double distilled water for chemical silver synthesis. 4.8.1 Oxalic acid silver synthesis: 1mM of ethanol solution of silver nitrate was prepared for silver nanoparticles chemical synthesis and 1ml of oxalic acid silver responsible compound dissolved solution was added upon the various concentrations of silver nitrate solution such as 1mM, 3mM and 5mM and abrupt color changes indicates chemical silver synthesis. 4.9 Characterization of silver nanoparticles 4.9.1 UV- Visible spectra analysis The reduction of metallic Ag+ ions was monitored by measuring the UV- Visible spectrum after about 16 hours of reaction.
Before 1856, all dyes were obtained from natural resources. The first synthetic dye, Mauveine, was accidentally discovered by William Henry Perkin in 1856 while he was looking for a cure for malaria. Different dyes are made of different dye molecules. Dyes have colour because they absorb light in the visible spectrum (400–700 nm), have at least one chromophore, have a conjugated system (a structure with alternating double and single bonds), and exhibit resonance
2.2.1 Preparation of sPEG from polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitanmonolaurate (tween-20) Star shaped polyoxyethylene (sPEG) was synthesized according to the literature with some changes . Briefly, 8 g of polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearatev were dissolved in 20 ml of THF in a round bottom flask and then 1 g of KOH was added as hydrolysis agent. After refluxing about 24 h, the solution was concentrated and added to a mixture of acidic water/hexane (1 : 1). The aqueous phase in which the sPEG is dissolved was separated by a separation funnel from hexane. Next, the aqueous phase was neutralized with HCl and extracted with dichloromethane.