The main assumptions of the theory are that individuals tend to evaluate the climate of opinions before choosing to express their opinions openly. This is driven by their fear of isolation that society threatens deviant individuals with. Thus, individuals are led by their perception of the dominating or opposing opinions in their environments although it may not be congruent with reality. When people conceal their opposing opinions, this lets the dominant views gain more ground and the minority opinions become lesser and lesser. This is the spiraling effect.
It might help with choosing when and how to move during a presentation. 3) It is important to close your presentation off properly. This will make your message stick better and make it memorable. It is also of the essence that you do not overwhelm your audience by attempting to make multiple memorable statements at once. This will only lead to confusion and have the opposite effect of what you had intended.
Response #7 Burke is explaining how rhetorical writing needs to be identified first to be understood. Depending on the rhetorical writing and how the author changes up what happens with the main characters, the writing is not intended to persuade. When the main characters within the text are understood then it's decided whether the argument is on that person. Since humans are divided in the way of thinking and how they have different personalities the identification of motives helps them believe that they aren't divided and that they are connected somehow. Everyone is his or her own individual but through identification, through rhetoric, we can think that we see ourselves in another person or group but even if we don’t the fact that we still
We should be respectful of other people’s beliefs and or values, because if we have dissimilar opinions we need to be cautious in verbalizing those thoughts so that we do not offend others. John Duffy later states that rhetoric is being used in a negative way in news
Priming is when a person is exposed to a stimulus and their reaction to another stimulus is effected by the previous stimulus. Words can influence our actions and beliefs. One study addressed the questions of whether priming a trait or stereotype could effect a person’s complex over behavior to go along with the trait or stereotype. To do this, they planned to affect their participants performance on tasks related to their abilities. They wanted to see if stereotype priming could lead to the same effect that trait priming had, since a stereotype has a set of traits associated with it (Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg, 1998).
As a Psychology major, I am taught to analyze people in an objective and holistic way. More than once, all humans tend to fall into the trap of the fundamental attribution error. The FAE is the claim that, in contrast to interpretations of their own behavior, people place undue emphasis on internal characteristics of the agent (character or intention), rather than external factors, in explaining another person’s behavior. This means that people tend to accuse a person's errors on internal factors, instead of how external factors can lead to errors. As I was reading “I’d Rather Smoke Than Kiss,” an essay by Florence King, I realized that during the initial analysis, I was committing the fundamental attribution error, and so were many of my peers.
Body language – your body language can be the way you are sitting, even though you are saying and doing one thing, your body language could say something different. For example, if your slouching it may give the impression that you aren’t listening to the other person is saying. Use of intonation - intonation is variation of pitch while speaking which is not used to distinguish words. For example, when giving a long presentation it’s a good idea to vary the pitch of your voice as it keeps the audience engaged longer. Positive language – positive language is about using phrases that show that you are taking responsibility for your actions and that you value people’s opinions and show that you can learn from others Negative language – negative language is using phases like ‘to be honest…’ this shows that you are most likely not an honest person and have lied in the past.
What is right or wrong? The answer cannot be easily explained since according to Luke Steven in the chapter “Relativism: Cognitive and Moral”, we use cognitive relativism as well as moral relativism when we are being faced with a situation in which we must make a decision. Cognitive relativism is when we base our knowledge on what we see and how we interpret the information that is available to us during that time. Most of the time, if we as individuals are not given all the pieces of information provided to us, we have to make rational assumptions when creating an explanation as to why something is the way it is. In lecture, we used the example that some people claimed that they saw a ghost, but because it is not possible to prove that a ghost
The recipient is affected by superficial level of the communication for instance visual and social factors. The more arguments are going to be given to the receiver, the greater probability that he or she will be persuaded. The receiver is not motivated or involved, then it is recommended to include in the message attractive source factors. In contrast to central processing route, it is quantity of arguments that is crucial, receivers persuaded by the peripheral route are passive, they are not highly involved in the topic and the message, they are not likely to investigate and pay much attention to the main information, and due to those facts That is why attitudes shaped or reinforced in such way, are mostly of short duration. Elaboration Likelihood Model assumes that effective persuasion relies not only on logical information and reasonable elements (central route) of the presented message but also on social or visual factors (peripheral route).
On the other hand, most service front line employees did refer to emotional aspects. In addition, asking people about their experience of understanding has led some to talk about experiences that have been conceptualized in the literature as sympathy, personal distress, or projection (Eisenberg, and Strayer, 1987).. This represents the complexity in fitting our phenomenological findings into the current discourse of empathy research, which makes conceptual distinctions that may not be made experientially. This effort represents an effort to bring the theory in line with the phenomenology of the experience of