This relates to Erikson’s notion that identity evolves throughout the lifespan due to experiences. Role loss can take the form of divorce or a child leaving home. Such changes have varied psychological implications depending social support and individual resilience. The discovery that adults have minimal change in personality is highly plausible. The aforementioned five personality traits would be developed in childhood and adolescence.
Aging is exciting, it discusses about maturity, wisdom and building unshakable, fruitful and successful relationship for a lifetime (National Institute for aging , 2015). In this study, the researcher will focus on the last stage of Eric Erickson psychosocial development on achieving integrity and Maslow hierarchy of human need in achieving self actualization, because it remains one of the least studied among the psychosocial stage and the hierarchy of human needs. Although, there are scholars who attempt to construct some of the elements of ego integrity among older adult, but little are known about the experiences of older adult on the relationship between his environment and inner
Self-actualizers are often described as people having feelings of empathy and affection for fellow human beings, as having the capacity to feel and express greater love, identification with others and deeper bonds of friendship. Adult developmental theories also stress the importance of having close union with others (intimacy) as well as attaining the guidance and directions of others (generativity). 3. AUTONOMY: A fully functioning person is charcterised as possessing internal locus of evaluation where a person does not look to others for approval and appraisal but evaluates one’s own self against personal standards. Individuation is a process that drifts from convention and the person no longer is governed by the laws of masses or clinging to collective fears or beliefs.
Emerson's insistence upon self-reliance is a demand for self-belief, non-conformity, and inconsistency. As an editor of The Dial, a transcendental journal, Emerson wrote the essay Self-Reliance for all men and teenagers unwilling to be ordinary on their path to self-realization. Emerson uses metaphors and analogies to express his idea that one should act singly, following his own nature. However, Emerson overestimates the power of individuals: ignoring the role of the community in our daily life and neglecting to objectively assess our environment can lead to a vicious circle of self-aggrandizement and narcissism. The first year of my high school, in the math class, I changed the answers I was not sure of during the quizzes.
Exercising your own ideals can be perceived as being rebellious in every society at time. People are expected to act, think, and behave in a way that safeguards everyone’s contentment. Ralph Waldo Emerson has a different view on this matter, in his essay Self-Reliance, he urges every individual to believe in their divine ideal and not to conform to society and its projections. In Emerson’s essay “Self-Reliance”, he urges for every human being to rely on their own intelligence and the genius within to make decision for themselves and to be their true selves. He discourages conforming and adhering to “dead institutions” (551) such as religion, academic colleges, and social organization.
Self-determination theory suggests that individuals are instrically motivated to pursue the things that interests them when they experience the three psychological needs: need for competence or mastery of tasks, need for relatedness or sense of belonging and attachment to other people and need for autonomy or control of own goals and behaviors which implies that individuals can foster personal growth and well-being through social support or relationships and interactions with others and that intrinsic motivation can increase through the provision of unexpected positive encouragement and feedback on performance (Cherry, 2016). This can be strengthened by the discussion of Ni (2015) who stated that provision of encouragement to elderlies in the creation of few and manageable goals, giving support in affirming self-identity which can enhance self-esteem, encouraging the feeling of usefulness through the provision of small tasks and facilitating adaptive and flexible coping skills are some of the ways which can motivate elderlies. In addition, discussing the importance of staying active in the maintenance of physical and mental fitness, using assistive devices in getting things done by themselves, doing challenging tasks together and providing encouraging phrases are some of the best ways to support and motivate elderlies in staying active and trying new things (Home Care Assistance,
In America, Diamond said, a "cult of youth" and emphasis on the virtues of independence, individualism and self-reliance also make life hard on older people as they inevitably lose some of these traits. Western culture strongly encourages children to think independently. This way of upbringing means that the young tends to not value elders’ views, thus, they may begin to treat them with derision. In contrast, Asian cultures teach the young about respecting the elderly. However, in the recent times, these values of respect are being eroded.
The theme of the essay “Self Reliance” written by Emerson is for beings to not focus on those of others or subside his/her values to fit in with our society, for true geniuses comes from within and are made with their own heart and mind. His idea of self-reliance differs from that of the norm in that he doesn’t encourage those to mix into selfish ways but to be open and proud of their own individuality for that is the true key to life itself. Emerson’s idea is similar to the common use in that he encourages those to not depend on others to define his/her identity. 2. Emerson’s use of figurative language encourages his readers to view his ideas in a clearer and more emphasized perspective.
Stigma and ageism can be defy because of thier capacity to contribute to the society. Elderly is being devalued because of different stereotypes being labeled to them such as: being frail, memory loss, wrinkled skin, and functional impairment that can affect their self perception leading to depression, low self esteem, and confidence as claim by Dobbs, et al., (2007). Ideally older adult should experience the perks of life instead of experiencing negative consequences of aging. Enjoying the availment of benefits of being an older adult in a society that once he or she served during his productive days. Growing old gracefully whether it is physical appearance, wisdom, imparting knowledge to the younger generation, being respected by the society, and being satisfied with life is a sign of healthy aging Cheng & Low
Moreo-ver, many of the current health and social policies focus on providing products and services to compensate the declines of older adults, thus favouring the permanence in their homes. In this sense, ageing in place  reflects the idea that familiar environ-ments provide a sense of belonging not only to the family, but also to the communi-ty, strongly related to the notion of identity, security, familiarity and autonomy, which are essential variables for a healthy ageing . This perspective also enforces the role of information technologies, which may help older adults in their homes (i.e. technologies for ageing in place ) to overcome multiple impairments, and to allow them to live safely, independently, autonomously and comfortably, with the neces-sary support services to their changing needs [2,10,11]. There are several reviews of reviews and meta-analyses related to technologies for ageing in place [12-16].