These political systems range from direct democracies to totalitarian regimes, such as military dictatorships. Common systems in the modern world include democratic republics, monarchies, and representative democracies. There are also primarily theoretical types of governments, like a strict meritocracy. One of the most often-talked about political system is a representative democracy. This is a system in which representatives are directly elected by the citizens, and these representatives then make political decisions for the people, with the assumption that their decisions will reflect the general will of the republic.
Linz states that presidential system lies precisely in the feature of dual democratic legitimacies. If the powers are carefully defined and the method of election limits party system fragmentation, having two, rather than one, agent of the electorate can be beneficial. Voters can support one party or candidate at the legislative level but another for the head of government. There is a direct democracy which gives an opportunity to separately elected the executive allows for more direct democracy than in the parliamentary system. Additionally, separation of powers promotes a system of checks and balances to be created, allowing one to monitor the other.
Right to vote in elections for public officials: this is considered as a foundation of free American society. Every American Citizens have right to vote a government leader whom he thinks can be able to lead the country. This means that in the US, everyone hold the liberty to vote the person he wants in local or national elections. For instance, voting is one of the major thing which helps the population (American Citizens) to intervene in decision making. This is because, choosing a leader means choosing someone who will be involved to take decisions.
As the presence of a coalition was uncommon till now, new constitutional norms were created and old ones were revised. For the doctrine of ministerial accountability, it isn’t important how many parties run the government, but that it is still one government. The members of government should all adopt the same position to ensure certainty and confidence in the government. The coalition also had great effect on the prime minister’s power when appointing ministers. Instead of choosing ministers at his own discretion, Cameron had to consult Clegg about it.
A political party is a group of people with similar ideologies, who nominate candidates, to try and win political power through elections. They bring forward their beliefs on public policy through their candidates in government. There are many types of political parties out there, mass parties, cadre parties, revolutionary, integrative, constitutional parties and catch all parties. Catch all parties have weaker objectives and ideological beliefs as they aim to represent all kinds of social backgrounds and ethnic groups, while cadre political parties require high political commitment, they are commonly recognised as communist and socialist parties. Constitutional parties are parties who work within the framework of the constitution while revolutionary parties are anti-constitution and they fight for a change.
According to federalist 10 suggested by Madison, he identifies the chief danger to a collapse of the Republican government as factionalism where the most numerically strong factions will be able to advance their self-interests at the expense of the minorities and the common good. He fears that the majority factions with different interests would constantly fight with each other that will lead to the eventual collapse of the collective self-government. He recognized that the effects of factions can be controlled through the structure of government which is federalism. The proposed Constitution will minimize the Effects of Factions where the effects are better controlled in larger size of the republic under a representative form of government. In a larger society, it will result in people selected to govern by the constitution be drawn from a wider pool and hence better refining the policies.
It is quite clear how political parties play an important role in today’s modern democratic world. They control the decisions of the government, compose up majority members for any countries parliament and also help assist in the appointment of party members to aid constitutional courts. For my essay I will be looking at, what parties are, how parties get their resources, how do they receive funding / has this changed over time and finally the consequences for the ways a party will operate. Political parties in other parts of the world such as United States are primarily candidate-focused parties. Elsewhere, such as in democratically developing countries they are more focused around a single leader party that can be described as transient.
The citizens possess the right to elect or vote out the representatives. What is more, direct democracy poses the threat of “tyranny of majority” (Way, n.d.). The political decisions, in a direct democracy, will be made on the majority basis which might lead to the infringement of the rights of minorities. Conversely, it is the responsibility of a state to protect the basic rights of every citizen. Representative party-based democracy, through the use of constitution, allows a government to guard the minority rights, who are equal citizens of the
How people act and what they believe in will lead to different approaches and opinions on how the government should function. This can be seen in the distinctions between how Madison and Jefferson viewed administrative policies. Madison was an institutionalist; he stressed the importance of establishing a centralized and representative government. In Federalist 10, he labeled the United States a republic over a democracy and highlights the necessity of government institutions by writing, “Extend the sphere, and you take in a greater variety of parties and interests; you make less probable that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens”. Madison believed institutions were extremely important in providing for the population.
Is existing voting system reflect the will of public? To answer these questions, it is necessary to give the definition of democracy. According to the explanation given by Oxford dictionary, democracy is a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives. To make it not so abstract and easier for further discussion, we quote the definition from Prof. Larry Diamond from Stanford University: A political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections. Hence, the characteristics of electoral system of a country can effectively reflect its degree of democracy.