Essay On Electrical Faults

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1.1. Overview Modern electrical power systems have three separate components - generation, transmission and distribution. Electrical power is generated at the power generating stations by alternators driven either by steam or hydro turbines. Most of the power generation takes place at generating stations that contain more than one alternator-turbine set. Depending upon the type of fuel used, the generating stations are categorized as thermal, hydro, nuclear etc. Most of the generating stations are located at remote regions. Hence the electric power generated at a generating station has to be transmitted over a long distance to load centers which are usually cities or towns. This is called the power transmission. In fact, power transmission towers and transmission lines are very common…show more content…
Electrical Faults THE control of grid-connected voltage source inverters (VSIs) under unbalanced voltage sags has been widely addressed in the technical literature. Some research has focused on active power control strategies, and two methods have been presented to provide the current references for the VSIs [1], [2]. As in the case of synchronous generators in conventional power plants, VSIs should remain connected during voltage sags and support the grid voltages with the injection of reactive currents [3], [4]. This is necessary to ride-through any type of fault. In electrical power systems consisting of generators, transformers, transmission lines and distribution circuits, most of the faults, about two-thirds, are liable to occur in the transmission lines. A fault in a circuit is any failure which interfaces with the normal flow of current. The faults occur in power system due to insulation failure of equipments, flashover of lines initiated by a lightning stroke, due to permanent damage to conductors and towers or due to accidental faulty operations. The faults can be broadly classified into shunt faults (short circuits) and series faults(open

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