Heart rate is a measurement used in a variety of studies for a variety of reasons. The heart’s function is solely to pump blood around the body, so nutrients can be transported and used where they are needed1(p360). Heart rate has been shown to have connections to and be an indicator of general health and abilities thus it is an appropriate variable to consider3,4. The ECG is a trusted and accurate machine used in many studies to determine the heart rate of an individual5,6,7. It has been used as a screening tool for Sudden Cardiac Death with controversial success5.
Myocardial perfusion imaging: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a form of functional cardiac imaging, used for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. The underlying principle is that under conditions of stress, diseased myocardium receives less blood flow than normal myocardium. MPI is one of several types of cardiac stress test. A cardiac specific radiopharmaceutical is administered. E.g.
It occurs when the flow of blood to the heart is blocked, there is a number of things that can cause this to occur’ (heart attack, 2017) Causes: • Bad cholesterol • High blood pressure ( this can damage arteries) • High intake of trans and saturated fats • Smoking • If family in the past have had history with heart attacks you may be at risk • Obesity • Stress • Illegal drug use (such as cocaine ) • Lack of physical activity • Age (men age 45+ and woman 55+ are more at risk of having a heart attack ) Symptoms: • Cold sweat • Fatigue • Tightness in the chest or arms • Struggling to breath • Dizziness Atherosclerosis Definition: This is also known as high cholesterol. It occurs when the blood flow from blood vessels become restricted, the vessels themselves become thick and stiff. Causes: • High cholesterol • High blood pressure • Inflammation from diseases such as arthritis • Obesity • Family history of high cholesterol • Lack of exercise • Unhealthy
If there is a complete block, then this can cause the area where the blood vessel supplies the blood to undergo necrosis which is also known as heart attack. SYMPTOMS Some of the symptoms exhibited by a person undergoing heart attack can vary from one person to another as this depends if this is a severe case of MI or a mild one. - Chest pain
PI is expressed as a percentage (0.02-20%). The main objective of this project is to track the Perfusion index of critically ill patients, which helps in giving more information about the patient’s health data in a more convenient way. We used a Pulse Oximeter sensor and obtained the IR LED values and RED LED values separately and used those values to find the PI Index value. Changes in PI can also occur as a result of local vasoconstriction (decrease in PI) or vasodilatation (increase in PI) in the skin at the monitoring site. These changes occur with changes in the volume of oxygenated blood flow in the skin microvasculature.
Jalel Chebil et al., (2007) utilized the discrete wavelet transforms to identify the first heart sound S1, second heart sound S2, and murmurs and developed an algorithm to classify the PCG signal into 3 categories as signal with murmur, signal with diastolic murmur, or a normal signal. P.S.Vikhe et al., (2009) used Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) to analyze the first (S1) and second (S2) heart sound of the Phonocardiogram signal (PCG). The experiments were performed on normal and pathological PCG signals. DWT was used to denoise and find the split between A2 and P2 and CWT was used to determine the frequency components of S1 and S2 of PCG and to measure the split between A2 and
It serves as a guiding tool during stent placement and peripheral interventions. It allows the assessment of possible intra - or postoperative complications. With the aid of IVUS, disease progression and regression can be determined, cardiac transplant status can be evaluated and IVUS can be utelized in clinical research. The most common IVUS imaging is done on the coronary arteries. EUS-guided angiotherapy makes intravascular therapy possible and is done in conjunction with real time ultrasound investigation of thrombosis and hemostasis (Buthani,
This method is used for measuring mechanical activity of the heart like the opening and closing movement of valves during each cardiac cycle to estimate the fetal heart rate signal. (10) It uses ultra-sounded technology by bouncing sound waves off the baby and return a representation of the fetal heartbeat rate (3). It depends on generating ultrasound beam with frequency of 1 or 2 MHz (the most common frequency are used in the range (1-2.3MHz). (11) Although, it’s intended for use by health care professionals, it’s becoming more and more popular for personal uses. However, the FDA recommends against their home use, citing possible harm to a developing fetus.
This device aims to target the primary issue of heart failure, which is the heart’s decrease in function. Ventricular assist devices help the heart pump blood from the ventricles to the rest of the body in a more efficient way.20 VAD can be used to treat left or right heart failure however, it is most commonly used in the left ventricle.20 A VAD can be used in patients who are awaiting heart transplantation but need short term support. It can also be used in patients who need long term support, but are not viable candidates to receive a heart transplant.20 Implantation of a ventricular assist device is an invasive procedure; so several diagnostic tests may be done in order to evaluate the eligibility of an individual to undergo the process. The procedure consists of an open heart surgery that lasts several hours.20 During the surgery, the individual is placed on mechanical ventilation and the heart is stopped via medication. A heart and lung bypass machine is used in order to allow oxygenated blood to continue to flow throughout the rest of the body.20 The VAD is then implanted into the right or left ventricle.
Smoking can also cause an increased count, along with many other health problems. A decreased red blood cell count or a low hematocrit is a major indication of anemia. Anemia can be the result of many disease. Anemia can arise from hemorrhages (blood loss), bone marrow dysfunction due to tumor formation or infection, red blood cell destruction (hemolysis), leukemia, chronic kidney disease, hepatitis, malnutrition, and even some autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus erythematosus. Anemia can also cause the hemoglobin to decrease, resulting in a low hemoglobin