The current flows because of the electric potential (V), sometimes referred to as the voltage, applied to a circuit. In much the same way that a gravitational potential will cause mass to move, the electric potential will cause electrons to move. If you lift a book and release it from a height (high gravitational potential) it will fall downward (to a lower potential). The electric potential works in a similar way; if one point of the circuit has a high electric potential, it means that it has a net positive charge and another point of the circuit with a low potential will have a net negative charge. Electrons in a wire will flow from low electric potential with its net negative charge to high electric potential with its net positive charge because unlike charges attract and like charges
For a ferroelectric material like PZT, however, P is itself a function of E as shown in figure 2.6 in this figure, the hysteresis effect, familiar from ferromagnetic, is quite evident. In this region, the field is not strong enough to switch domains with unfavorable direction of polarization. The polarization of domains with unfavorable direction of polarization will start to switch along directions crystallographic ally as close as possible to the direction of the field when the field is increased, causing rapid increase in the measured charge density . The dipoles become increasing aligned with the field and the polarization will follow the `initial curve' shown in Fig.2.6 if an initially unpolarized sample of PZT is subjected to an increasing electric field at a temperature slightly below its Curie point, When the field has increased beyond a certain value, because the dipoles are then all aligned with the field there will be no further increase in polarization. The material is then said to have reached its saturation polarization Ps*.
Abstract:In the never ending effort to improve the boiler and pressure vessel performance, companies are hunting to modify the materials to cope up mainly to power demand and other applications in India. Advanced Chromoly steel (ASTM A335 P91/T91) are experiencing more worldwide usage, which is promising materials replacing the austenitic steel that ensure more creep rupture strength at elevated temperature up to 650 °C. The systematic research towards the development of ferritic steels especially T/P91 material is given in detail. The metallurgical aspects of the structural transformations and hardness properties of this steel are highlighted along with the weldability characteristics. Further notification in material composition to improve
These performance of magnetism brakes build them way more competitive c&idate for varied retardation equipments compared with various retarders. Recommended Mechanical Project: Intelligent Reverse Braking System This project report explains regarding totally different aspects of magnetic force brake & is split into many chapters like general principle of brake, st&ard friction brake, however normal (friction) brakes work, “brake fading” result, retarders, construction, general principle & advantage of magnetic force brakes, rule, electrical system, kinds of magnetic force brake, characteristic of magnetic force brakes, thermal dynamics, merits, dermirts & application. Use this report for your reference & study
TIME- and Time Twin welding:-TIME and Time Twin are high-performance processes derived from the MIG/MAG welding process. CMT welding: - CMT is a modified MIG/MAG process that for the first time enables steel and aluminum to be joined using heat. Many different energy sources can be used for welding, including a gas flame, an electric arc, a laser, an electron beam, friction, and ultrasound. While often an industrial process, welding may be performed in many different environments, including in open air, under water, and in outer space. Welding is a hazardous undertaking and precautions are required to avoid burns, electric shock, vision damage, inhalation of poisonous gases and fumes, and exposure to intense ultraviolet radiation.
Fine tuning of the dimensions of these solid suspensions in millimeter and micrometer ranges for getting better heat transfer performance have failed because of the drawbacks such as still low thermal conductivity, particle sedimentation, corrosion of components of machines, particle clogging, excessive pressure drops etc. Downscaling of particle sizes continued in the search for new types of fluid suspensions having enhanced thermal properties as well as heat transfer performance. All physical mechanisms have a critical scale below which the properties of a material changes totally. Modern nanotechnology offers physical and chemical routes to prepare nanometer sized particles or nanostructured materials engineered on the atomic or molecular scales with enhanced thermo-physical properties compared to their respective bulk forms.
CHEPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW Dean Dang et al. Fusion welding process is widely used in shipbuilding and automobile industries to join thin plate panel structure. High tensile strength steel thin plate used instead of low carbon steel to reduce the weight. In thin plate buckling distortion is occurs and it loss the structural integrity and dimensional accuracy. In this study, welding distortion in a large thin plate panel structure was predicted by means of elastic FEM based on inherent strain theory and interface element formulation.
First and foremost, the hybrid car should be preferred to standard car because it is environmentally friendly. Environmental friendly means do not harm to the environment and this can be explained when it works on twin powered engine which are used to reduce the pollution. Basically, most of the experts say that the electric engine is used for lower speed and gasoline engine is used for higher speeds. The hybrid car not only consumes less fuel but it also produces less amount of carbon dioxide emission. The hybrid car runs on twin powered engine like gasoline and electric motor that cut fuel consumption, reduce air pollution and conserves more energy (Rinkesh, 2009).
1. Briefly discuss the importance of viscosity in chemical processes. Viscosity is the measure of internal friction of a fluid. When a layer of fluid is made to move in relation to another layer, this friction becomes apparent. The greater of friction which increase the force required for the movement, which known as shear.
Physical Structure The physical structure has to be as simple as possible. The mining environment has high temperature and dust. So the maintenance and ownership on the robots shouldn’t be expensive. Localization In order for the robot to move in the unstructured environment, it is fitted with several kinds of advanced sensors such as CCD sensor, ultrasonic sensor, and machine probe. The information from the sensors is analyzed and compared to a set of algorithms.