The Blood agar is a bright red, opaque plate and the streaking or the inoculation technique was a modified streaking for isolation with a heavy quadrant one. This is where the antibacterial disc bacitracin was used to determine the bacteria’s susceptibility.
1.3 Essential Questions What is the structure and function of DNA? DNA is in the form of a double helix. Each subunit of DNA is known as a nucleotide containing a phosphate group (negative charge), ribose sugar, and nitrogenous base. The four different nitrogenous bases in DNA are paired with another nucleotide containing the complementary nitrogenous base. These pairs are Adenine and Thymine, and Cytosine and Guanine.
The 1:1 hexane to ethyl acetate solvent resulted in the best separation because it not only showed extra spots that the other solvent mixtures did not have, but also the 4 spots were relatively dispersed with Rf values at 0.77, 0.56, 0.27, and 0.10 (Figure 2). Missing spots were also noted on the hexane only TLC plate. The orange eluent was ultimately chosen as our major product because it had significantly different TLC results than the 3 yellow eluents with the same Rf of 0.23 (Figure 3). The percent yield for this purification method was 248% and the extrapolated percent purified yield was around 135 %, which are both erroneously high. These high percent yield may be due to extra water weight or not fully evaporated
The electro pores reseal spontaneously and the cell can recover. The formation of electro pores depends upon the cells that are used and the amplitude and duration of the electric pulse that is applied to them. Electric currents can lead to dramatic heating of the cells that can results in cell death. Heating effects are minimized by using relatively high amplitude, a short duration pulse or by using two very short duration pulses. In terms of mammalian trans genesis, electroporation is an effective method of introducing exogenous DNA into embryonic stem (ES) cells.
TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
It is a more often observed biotransformation pathway for small endogenous compounds, but also plays a role in the metabolism of macromolecules like nucleic acids. Compounds can undergo N-, O-, S- and arsenic methylation catalyzed by enzymes called methyltransferases, employing S-adenosylmethionine as the methyl donor.95,98 Amino acid conjugation reactions are a route of metabolism of xenobiotic carboxylic acids. The enzymes of conjugation reside in mitochondria. Mechanistically, it differs from the other conjugation reactions. It involves initial activation of the carboxylic acid moiety with ATP, generating an acyl adenylate and pyrophosphate.
Chemiluminescence is the process of generating light through a chemical reaction. This is due to the product of an excited electronic state that release a photon, or light, as it returns to the ground state. An excited electronic state is caused by the promotion of an electron to another orbital. The energy used to promote the electron will be lost either a radiationless energy or through the release of visible light, such as with the cases of fluorescence—involving the singlet electronic state, which has two unpaired electron with opposite spin quantum numbers—and phosphorescence—involving the triplet electronic state. Which has two unpaired electrons with the same spin quantum
However, unlike in PCR, one primer is used instead in CSR, so linear amplifications of the products are made. Dideoxyribonucleoside triphosphate, ddNTP, terminators are fluorescently labeled and a laser within a sequencing machine is used to analyze the produced DNA fragments by relaying information and generating an electropherogram of the sequence. DdNTPs are also used to terminate the chain growths (Fan et al.,
An enzyme biologically defined is a catalyst produced by cells to speed up specific chemical reactions without changing the chemical reaction at the end of the reaction.1 There are several factors that affect the rate an enzyme speeds up reactions; temperature, pH, substrate concentration and enzyme concentration.2 However, when there is too much or not enough of these factors (depending on the enzyme) it can destroy the enzyme entirely. In this experiment we tested how temperature affects enzymes. We observed the enzyme activity for the enzyme Alkaline phosphatase when it was put in an environment of 33°C and 86°C. Because Alkaline phosphatase has the ability to extract phosphate groups from substrates, once the Alkaline phosphatase was in the specifically heated environment for five minutes, we measured it’s activity by inserting para-nitrophenyphosphate. Para-nitrophenyphosphate is a substrate that goes from being colorless to being the color yellow when it’s phosphate group is removed.
The newly made mRNA strand travels out of the nucleus to a ribosome where the directions can be made into a protein. A ribosome is composed of one large and one small subunit that assemble around the mRNA. The mRNA now passes through the ribosome. Now, amino acid building blocks are carried into the ribosome attached to specific transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules. The small subunit of the ribosome arranges the mRNA so that it can be read it segments of 3 nucleotides.