Elements Of Deductive Reasoning

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I. INTRODUCTION
Mathematic has an abstract object, and composed by hierarchy concepts. The existing concept underlies the next new concept. The object in mathematic learning are fact, concept, principle, and skills. To understand concept in mathematic theory need to conceive previous mathematic concept with a deductive mindset. The main element of mathematic is deductive reasoning that works on the basis of assumption, that is truth of concept or statement obtained as logical consequences of truth before. With deductive mindset, mathematic becomes main way in deductive reasoning. The deductive thinking ability underlies another reasoning ability, inductive mindset. That condition show to understand mathematic concept/theory need reasoning
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Deductive reasoning is a thinking process to draw a conclusion about specific thing stands for general thing or things has been proven. Deductive reasoning is intended as a thinking process that uses general statement as a basic for special statement. The process of reasoning become from general knowledge to special knowledge through the rule of argument in syllogism. That condition imply an actual conclusions used for verify the fact. Since the conclusion of deductive reasoning is correct when premises used are also true, there must be certainty that premises used truly right. The deductive proofing process will involve a theory or a mathematical formula which has already been proven to be deductive as well.
In inductive reasoning, general conclusions are built on factors collected through directional observation. It means, someone can gain knowledge by observing the natural surroundings and the fact that occur, then make a general conclusions. How to draw conclusions on this inductive reasoning has opposite way with the deductive reasoning. In deductive reasoning premises must be known before drawing a conclusions, whereas inductive reasoning requires conclusions by observing the examples and then drawing a general conclusions from the
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The ability to draw a conclusions from the statement is a thought process that empowers its knowledge to produce an ideas. The students' reasoning ability can also be seen from their ability to examine the validity of an argument, the ability that requires the student to be able to investigate the truth of an existing statement. The ability to find patterns or traits of mathematical phenomena is needed to make generalizations. In addition, reasoning ability is also required to measure its ability to find patterns or ways of a statement so as to develop it into a mathematical sentence.
The reasoning ability is a person's ability to master the thinking process undertaken in a way to draw conclusions. Therefore, students' mathematical reasoning abilities are measured using reasoning skills tests that include indicators: (1) proposing hypothesis; proposing mathematical manipulation; (3) draw a conclusions, draw up evidence, give a reason or evidence against the truth of solutions; (4) draw conclusions from statements; (5) examine the validity of an argument; (6) find patterns or mathematics characteristic to make a

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