This experiment is set up the study the effect of different sodium bicarbonate concentrations on the rate of photosynthesis in spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and other photoautotrophs synthesize organic compounds from carbon dioxide (Faculty of Science and Horticulture, 2018). Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast of a plant cell, where sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide are used in a reaction to produce oxygen and sugar (Reese 2017). In the photosynthesis reaction carbon dioxide is reduced to make sugar and water is oxidized to make oxygen. In this experiment oxygen production is being used to measure the rate of photosynthesis.
Grishma Patel Chloroplast Pigments and Colored Light Absorption Summary The purpose of executing this lab was to see how different wavelengths and colors of light are absorbed by chloroplast pigments. The goal was to see the variations of light dependant reactions of photosynthesis based on different types of light. Spinach was used by grinding it with acetone and acquire the thylakoids used in the experiment. DCIP was used in this experiment as the oxidizing agent that will turn blue to clear when in contact with light.
Introduction: Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and specific types of bacteria in order to make their own food source from sunlight to chemical energy. It is mainly occurred within the leaves of the plant. The reaction requires light energy in order for it to be absorbed by chlorophyll. During the reaction carbon dioxide, water is converted into glucose and oxygen as shown below: Figure 1 (photosynthesis uses light energy to convert carbon dioxide into a carbohydrate) (The Chemical Equation of Photosynthesis. 2018, Accessed 16 March 2018) There are two types of photosynthetic processes; one includes oxygenic photosynthesis, which is most common and demonstrated through plants, algae and cyanobacteria while the other one is an-oxygenic photosynthesis.
The starch-iodide complex forms because of the transfer of charge between the starch and iodide ion and results in spacing between the energy levels. This allows the complex to absorb light at different wavelengths resulting in a dark blue colour (Travers et al., 2002). A blue colour would indicate a positive test while a yellow colour would show a negative test. The Benedict’s test is useful for reducing sugars.
Catalase Test, in this test the microbial culture from Nutrient Agar plates were used. This test determines the production of catalase by the microorganisms. Catalase is an enzyme which decomposes hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen gas thereby, protecting the microorganisms from the lethal effect of hydrogen peroxide which is accumulated as an end product of aerobic carbohydrate metabolism. (Bahrami-Hessari et. al.
Therefore, the hydrate is probably CuSO4•5H2O. However, the percentage of error, 7.224%, is not small enough, and the crystals turn out to have a yellowish green color instead of to be white. This can be eliminated by decreasing the amount of hydrate, avoid touching the hydrate with other substances during the reaction, and increasing the intensity of the flame and the time of
1 “substrate” and another “ enzyme.” Instead of using the distilled water, this time you are going to use different pH buffer in the enzyme test tube. In the substrate tube, add 7 mL of distilled water, 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, and 0.2 mL of guaiacol for a total volume of 7.5 mL. For the enzyme tube, instead of distilled water add the pH solution (3) and 1.5 mL of peroxidase which equals a total volume of 7.5 mL. Use the dH2O syringe for our pH solution. To clean the syringe, flush it by drawing 6 mL of distilled water.
Cyanobacteria or cyanophyta is commonly known as blue-green algae which is a type of bacteria. The colour pigment they have is from phycocyanin along with chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is in all green plants, algae and also cyanobacteria which helps them absorb light to create energy to be able to perform photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria grows at the ocean shore or pools and ponds at their edges although they can be found in soil, water and salt water. Cyanobacteria live in sheets like films, but thin enough so the cells can be able to get water and sunlight.
These results accept the hypothesis: if yeast can metabolize, then the bromothymol blue solution should turn yellow from the production of carbon dioxide. Only the bromothymol blue solution with yeast turned yellow, suggesting that the yeast caused the color change. The yeast consumed sugar, produced
A wide variety of different monomer compositions of PHA has been described, as well as their future prospects for applications where high biodegradability or biocompatibility is required. PHA can be produced from renewable raw materials and are degraded naturally by microorganisms that enable carbon dioxide and organic compound recycling in the ecosystem, providing a buffer to climate change. Although more than 300 different microorganisms synthesize PHA(Steinbüchel, A et al,1995, Kim et al,2001, Lenz et al,2005, Hazer et al ,2007), only a few, such as Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha or Alcaligenes eutrophus), Alcaligenes latus, Azotobacter vinelandii, Pseudomonas oleovorans, Paracoccus denitrificans, Protomonas extorquens, and recombinant E. coli, are able to produce sufficient PHA for large-scale production. The objective of this study was to isolate and identification PHA-producing bacteria in different soils collected from Allahabad and characterization for Plant growth promoting traits for the enhancement of Rice seed germination under in Vitro
The first part of this lab was to get a chromatography, spinach and a quarter. The next step was to draw a line of the chromatography and rub the spinach leaf on it with the quarter. After this, the next step was to place the chromatography paper inside the tube and allow the solvent to rise to the paper. The final step was to remove the paper and mark the spots where the colors had shown up as they would disappear soon after. By doing this lab, it was possible to see all the different accessory pigments as well as the chlorophyll.