However, in human beings, the percentage may lower and may interfere with the natural biological order of life. Arguments for and against cloning of humans do not make a convincing case since reasons used to back the claims are based on various assumptions and ethical issues. The proponents of cloning argue that the technology can help in solving the problem of infertility; help in cloning dead loved ones, and solving the problem of genetic diseases. Cloning can allow a person to have a genetically copy of oneself with all positive traits. However, such claims have not been proved since no human clone has been produced so far (Melo‐Martín 246).
Option 1: Designer Babies What is a designer baby? Designer baby is a non-scientific but popular journalistic term that refers to gene therapy, a technique that uses genes, screening, and modifying embryos to cure hereditary diseases. The term is also used to describe a possible scenario in which scientists choose specific traits or physical characteristics (genetic-makeup) before a baby is born. This process can help to remove many genetic diseases stemmed from defects in mitochondria ("BBC - Horizon - 2005 - Who 's Afraid Of Designer Babies", 2005). What is the ethical question posed in these two videos at YouTube?
The fact that the cells may come from embryos is not an objection, because the embryos are going to die anyway.” (Stephen Hawking) There are multiple pros and cons to stem cell research. Some pros might be the innovative idea about stem cell research which is primarily due to the medical benefits in areas of regenerative medicine and therapeutic cloning. Stem cells provide huge potential for finding treatments and cures to a vast array of diseases including different cancers, diabetes, spinal cord injuries, Alzheimer's, MS, Huntington's, Parkinson's and more. There is endless potential for scientists to learn about human growth and cell development from studying stem cells. Some cons might be that the stem cells primarily come from terminated pregnancy.
This method is used for measuring mechanical activity of the heart like the opening and closing movement of valves during each cardiac cycle to estimate the fetal heart rate signal. (10) It uses ultra-sounded technology by bouncing sound waves off the baby and return a representation of the fetal heartbeat rate (3). It depends on generating ultrasound beam with frequency of 1 or 2 MHz (the most common frequency are used in the range (1-2.3MHz). (11) Although, it’s intended for use by health care professionals, it’s becoming more and more popular for personal uses. However, the FDA recommends against their home use, citing possible harm to a developing fetus.
The prenatal diagnostics and prenatal screening being routine procedures should be considered as advantage of modern medicine. It helps to reveal wide spectrum of fetus abnormal conditions, but not only congenital defects and malformations. Early detection of many of them could help to perform surgical correction and necessary management as soon as possible in order to save newborns’ lives. On the other hand, this method is widely discussed and it has many opponents, and in some countries prenatal diagnostic procedures is not considered now as a screening method. Main ethical issues are terminations of pregnancies in case of malformations, which may be supposed as eugenical abortion, inform consent and problem of decision-making process.
More work should be done to educate people on and create more access to contraception rather than punishing those who were not taught. “What if the fetus grows up to cure cancer?” is a common question posed by the opposite side of the argument. In the same fashion, what if the fetus grows up to be a serial killer? Clearly, that argument is illogical, as one cannot judge someone based on hypothetical future
Though scientists developed safer methods for injection such as giving the patient’s immune suppressants before the procedure or delivering viruses to cells outside the body, gene therapy was reconsidered and believed to be inhumane to experiment on humans. Some people wondered if it was right to alter an individual’s genes with such an unpredictable outcome while others considered the fact that due to the expensive nature of a gene therapy procedure, scientists may be developing a procedure that is only available to the wealthy (NIH, 2018). Scientists, while acknowledging Jesse’s death and the large expense of a gene therapy procedure, argue that gene therapy has many benefits and could be evolved in a way to benefit all people once more is known. A large benefit that is consistently argued is if scientists could have the means to research and make gene therapy possible, the future may hold the ability to fix genetic diseases in developing embryos. If gene therapy were allowed to be practiced to success, scientists could not only identify genetic diseases in babies but now take it a step further and inject a gene to cure the child so the baby would be cured and survive (Lewis,
The reproductive system is made up of the vagina, cervix, urethra, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. This paper will go in depth on these subjects.This paper will explain the function, details, and how to tell what is wrong. These reproductive systems are important to bring a healthy baby into the world. If any thing is wrong with any of these body parts something can go majorly wrong, which is why you need things such as pap smears. The first part of the system is the cervix.
One of the ethical issues of today that the medical field is facing is about genetic engineering. A genetic engineering technology also known as genetic modification is a way in which the organism’s genetic genome, a complete set of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is being directly manipulated using biotechnology. You can customize your offspring by having the opportunity to choose which genetic trait your unborn child should posses, best examples are gender, eyes and the color of the hair. Genetic engineering in lay man’s term is designer baby. The idea of genetic modification has started to cure illnesses by replacing an unhealthy DNA of an unborn child to a healthy one to eliminate the occurrence of diseases that can be carried out hereditarily
The validity and even humanity in animal testing is something on the margins of morale, it is not something done out of joy, it is not pleasurable for the testers or the tested themselves. So there, we are given a reason to submit the simple question of whether animal testing should be permitted at all. Why not simply cut our losses and move on to greener pastures, after all it is indeed the definition of grotesque to experiment on living beings and people may have been right to protest and raise awareness for such cruel misconducts. There must be something that can be done. However, that line of thinking quickly clashes with the fact that with the help of exactly such testing, with the sacrifice of those animal lives, human lives are saved in return.
The use of embryonic stem cells for medical treatment or scientific research is considered one of bioethics greatest controversies. Since the discovery of the uses of embryonic stem in 1981, people have argued that that embryonic stem cell research pushes the bounds of humane ethics. Conversely, others argue that the use of embryonic stem cells follow the principle tenets of bioethics: maximize benefits and minimize harm. Following their discovery, methods to remove embryonic stem cells from humans was discovered in 1998. Shortly after, In 2001, President George W. Bush granted federal funding to the research of hECS.