INTRODUCTION Motivation is the process that arouses, directs and maintains behavior. It involves two sub-categories and that is arousal and direction. Motivation can also be defined as the set of factors that initiate and direct behavior, usually towards a goal. Arousal is what gets a person motivated or excited to get something done. The second category would be direction.
Introduction Motivation represents the forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of human behaviour in organization (Campbell & Pritchard, 1976, Craig C.Pinder, 1998).Motivation is a psychological process in organization that helps it to increase the productivity, good turnover, achieving target on time, and also provide the job satisfaction to an individual (Luthans &Madauburn, 1998). Work motivation is described as the psychological processes that direct, strength, maintain action toward a job, task, role, or project (Campbell & Pritchard, 1976; Kanfer, 1990).Motivation refers to “influence characteristics of human behaviour in organization” (Guay et al., 2010). Motivation is a persistent problem
ARTICLE 1: VICTOR VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION This article provides a critical analysis of Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation. It provides a comprehensive review of the factors affecting employee motivation, the relationship between Instrumentality (I), Expectancy (E) and Valence (V), nature, characteristics as well as the merits of the theory. FINDINGS: Vroom’s expectancy theory is an important process theory of motivation which states that an employee’s motivation to do a job depends on his/her expectancy or outcome from doing it. The level of employee motivation depends on the value that employees give to work outcomes. There are 4 factors that affect motivation: 1.
Usually these kind of needs drive the individual towards special kinds of behaviour. Since this is learned needs, their strength varies from one individual to another. Example of some of these needs are, power, affiliation, achievement and approval. 2.30 HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Figure 1 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow%27s_hierarchy_of_needs Humanistic psychologist, Abraham Maslow says that the needs is like a ladder-like steps. As the upward movement of ladder, our needs are met according the steps.
The reading “A Theory of Human Motivation” written by Abraham H. Maslow analyses the human needs and motivations by categorizing the needs by hierarchical importance of the physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization needs. The author stated that some of the needs are more important than others but interdependency among them are indispensable. Maslow argued, “Any motivated behavior, either preparatory or consummatory, must be understood to be a channel through which many basic needs may be simultaneously expressed or satisfied” (p. 142). The first basic need is the physiological need which concentrates in the importance of maintaining the body with nutriment, in order to maintain all other needs fully equipped to balance the body. The second need is the safety need which focus on incorporating all the human capacity to organize the behavior and skills to seek for safety-seeking mechanisms.
1- Motivation according to Maslow theory Abraham Maslow had developed the hierarchy of needs model in 1940-50’s USA, and till then the hierarchy of needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. Abraham Maslow 's theory of motivation asserts that humans are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. They act to fulfill basic survival needs before addressing more advanced needs or wants. This hierarchy is shaped like a pyramid, with the lower levels occupied by physical, physiological needs such as food, water and shelter. Self-actualization is at the peak of the pyramid of needs.
Behavior that is performed for its own sake is intrinsically motivated and behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment is extrinsically motivated. Examples of extrinsic motivators are salary, working conditions and job security, while opportunities to use one 's own initiative and creativity are examples of intrinsic motivators. ( - ) The vast diversity of people and the complexity of their behavior have led to a broad range and variety of motivation theories. The purpose of these motivation theories is to attempt to explain and predict observable behavior. ( ) Motivation theories can be broadly divided in two groups: needs theories and process theories.
Staff then did monotonous manual jobs mainly due to the fact organisations were too rigid. In relation to motivation I believe quality is one of the most important issues that influence satisfaction of staff. For example if staff were to be given sufficient pay but are given meaningless monotonous tasks staff become somewhat bored and show an absence of self-value. This is consistent with Herzberg’s theory, as soon as wages stop motivating staff, emotional reward step in to satisfy the motivation. Therefore after a certain amount of time money is no longer a
Aside from the personality of an individual, motivation is crucial for the initiation of the creative process or for the completion of the process. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation can really determine how well something is done. Sosik et al (1999) suggested that intrinsic motivation, concentration and enjoyment encouraged idea generation (Patterson & Kerrin). However, it is isn’t only about idea generation, intrinsic motivation also seen as curiosity within the person or the ‘want’ to improve the feeling of mastery or self expression and this desire leads to great outcomes (Patterson & Kerrin). The feeling of responsibility is an example of intrinsic motivation because when an employee feels that organization he or she work for is for example in need of a new way to maximize profits, approach customers, or compete with competitors the internal motivation may spur.
Intrinsic motivation concept refers to behaviors carried out of enjoyment and interest. This type of motivations occurs when employees are motivated by factors such as being associated with some common values, and job satisfaction. Frey and Osterloh (2002) further explained intrinsic motivation in three forms; the first is when the activities embarked upon serves as a source of satisfaction, providing an enjoyable experience. The end goal and the actions to the end goal are equally important. The second form is when an employee meets some certain standards for his or her sake for example when an employee tries to meet some ethical standards to feel respected such as professional codes of conduct.