Visual-spatial intelligence is among the contributing factors of reading skill. There are two elements previously discussed that one must improve the reading ability through practices. First, children are urged to be aware of and recognize a smaller variation of the shape of alphabets that result in a different sound and meaning - for example, the word ‘mother’. Second, words are formed from a set of sounds symbolized by a set of alphabets. There are several elements in reading skill that require practice: first, understanding that a writing is the symbolization of words.
" Whole language " is a method of teaching reading that emphasizes literature and text comprehension . Students are taught to use critical thinking strategies and to use context to " guess " words that they do not recognize . In the younger grades, children use invented spelling to write their own stories . Both instructional methods use elements that are emphasized in the other; the differences between the methods are largely related to what is emphasized and the sequence of skill instruction . Phonics : Phonics is seen to be an improvement on the previously used method of learning the approximate sounds represented by letters ( b = buh) first and then blending them with other sounds ( b1 = bluh ) to decode and encode words in written form .
Introduction : Teaching requires more than having degree of education . Teachers should recognize student needs and getting the class involved in the learning process .That requires recognizing the new trends of teaching approaches . Language skills are a main component of the English language . Reading is a key for developing other language skills . Reading skills include skills acquired through reading, such as comprehension, fluency and independence.
Children take part in phonics lessons and word-recognition strategy instruction. They learn that the sounds in spoken words relate to the patterns of letters in written words in predictable and often generalizable ways. As they read books and other print materials, children learn to combine their knowledge of print and sounds with their knowledge of language to read with meaning and enjoyment. It is evident that no one aspect of a beginning program should monopolize instructional
Phonemics Awareness in Marungko Approach as a Prerequisite in Learning to Read Phonemic awareness is the ability to notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in spoken words. It is the first thread in the tapestry of reading foundation skill with which the threads of reading are woven (Lumberg, 1998 as cited on The Modern Teacher). Therefore to understand the alphabetic principle, one must recognize that spoken words consist of a sequence of sounds and this understanding is called phonemic awareness (McCormick, 1999). Once individual letter-sounds are mastered, children are taught how to blend them together to read words. Stanovich (1993-94) defines that, “phonemic awareness is the best predictor of the ease of early reading
Thus, it conveys word meaning, appropriate spelling, and speakers’ message/intention. ESL classes have to promote tasks that help learners increase their linguistic skills in English. ”There are two ways of dealing with this: The first one is to show students how sounds are made through demonstration, diagrams
It gives strategies such as reader-generated questions. Asking learners to read a text, teachers must identify information that is necessary for understanding the text, evaluate learners' prior knowledge of these necessities, and fill any gaps that are found. It will help me to plan responsive activities around reading and interpreting texts. Sharing ideas, comparing perspectives, and coming to the agreement are all ways that learners use the language of the text in meaningful ways, and therefore progress to higher levels of language proficiency and reading
The challenges in teaching creative writing as a second language to middle school children Writing is one of the languages skills that is very important to be mastered in learning English as a foreign language. According to (Sokolik, 2003). Writing is a combination of process and production, process refers to the steps and ideas we go through to produce it and production is the final piece of the writing according to (Zhang & Chen, 1989). Writing is a comprehension skill that incorporates grammar, vocabulary, conception and other parts of the language. By developing the writing skill it will help young learners have a bright future in their further studies.
It is also asserted to be “essence of reading”.According National Reading Panel (2000) posited three research data of Reading comprehension, which have the following themes: 1) Reading Comprehension cognitive process, developing of vocabulary and instruction. 2) Reading comprehension involves interactive processes, which is essential for development of reading skills in schools. 3) Teacher should be trained with better learning resources to enhance student Reading Skills. Reading comprehension skills is to comprehened and interpret the written material accurately. It is a skill that every child needs to learn and should be able to decode what they read and making connections between their prior knowledge and deeply understand about what has been read(Pressley & Allington, 2014).
Challenges of English Orthography and Reading Various difficulties have been noted concerning the manner in which children learn how to read and write. According to Hanley (2010), kids are exposed to different patterns of spelling and writing in the English language that can be attributed by diverse perspectives. Such a provision necessitates for the recognition of the English writing system to help a child improve on their write words through the letter-sound correspondences. Through the recognition of the letter-sound system in writing, the relationship between spoken and written English will be established. The challenges of demonstrating correct spelling will be realized through the determination of the advantages and disadvantages of the