The questions of the whether social inequality is justified and the extent of government to address said inequality are some of the foundations upon which societies and economies are built. Two key philosophers on this issue – John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau – differ on this subject. In Two Treatises on Government, Locke holds that individuals have a right to property derived from their labor, citizens consent to the existence of inequality in society, and governments are instituted among men to protect said property. In contrast, Rousseau writes in Discourse on the Origin of Inequality and The Social Contract that inequality should be strictly limited and that governments have a duty to act in the best interest of its citizens by maintaining
This period was known for posing critical sociological issues without the possibility of their resolutions. The afore-mentioned resolutions came about more distinctly in the nineteenth-century. According to Alan, the early nineteenth-century sociological thought sought to define the social both in terms of society as a complex structural whole and in its relation with specific institutions (Swingewood, 1991). The science of sociology began in the search for explanations for social change and this has resulted in mainly three schools of sociology. These include: Early sociological thought, Classical sociological thought and Modern sociological thought.
It is only possible by systematic study of sociology about the study of factors of society and great institutions. The Government, Religion, Economy, family, friends, education, Culture, Neighborhood, work are some of these institutions through which society functions. Sociology analyses these institutions and their act in the improvement of the personal and recommend appropriate action for developing. This paper is describing about three societal factors that influenced my life; they are Education, Culture and family. Education Education has great impact on my life.
Karl Marx was born May 5th 1818 in Germany. The economic ideas of Karl Marx were specifically that he did not believe in people having great ideas to change the economy but rather that all people needed was to be able to live a decent life, meaning that they had food to eat and a home. For Karl Marx the economic system had to be equal values, and therefore eradicating classes. Therefore arises Communism, which is the defined by the Chambers Concise Dictionary (2009) as “A political ideology advocating a classless society, the abolition of private ownership, and collective ownership by the people of all sources of wealth and production.” The ideas of Karl Marx were adopted in many countries across the globe for example the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Russia) that existed from 1922 to 1991 when the idea of socialism and communism failed and
The term "anomie," in this regard, stands for the absence of social regulation (Siegel, & Welsh, 2014). American sociologist Robert Merton emphasized the faulty relationship between the goal of the individual or the group of individuals and the legal means by which it is possible to achieve the goals (Thompson & Bynum, 2016). Robert Merton divided the goals into two distinct categories: the goals defined by culture and the acceptable means. Materialistic goals, such as a search for financial success, fall into the former category, whereas the goals such as education fall into the former (Thompson & Bynum, 2016). The main argument made by Merton is that the goal of achieving success is shared by the majority of people, whereas the seeking opportunities to do this legally through the means of
3.1) Power distance index Power distance index refers inequality in the society and which is accepted by a people of the society. the power in the society is divided unequally. The country who has high point in power distance it indicate that country has high amount unequal distribution of power and they follow leader’s power. People follows the system without any interruptions(3,5,). Empowerment helps to motivate with expectancy and reinforcement dynamics(6) 3.2) Individualism versus collectivism Individualism refers to the individual who take care of themselves only not the community.
It seems clear that More was anything but a socialist, which raises the question, why did he write “Utopia”? Was it a critique of monarchal forms of government? Was it satire? Did he really believe that “Utopia” described the best way to govern a nation? I personally deem that he did not, and that Utopia was an intellectual exercise for More.
Unlike Weber, Karl Marx thought that capitalism is the creation of bureaucrat class for their interests, in order to dominant the foundation of the society. Nevertheless, for Marx religion is a part of the society and it is basic needs for individuals, so in Marxist perspective about religion there is nothing to do with capitalism, but in Weber’s perspective religion is the source of
Popper was a staunch positivist in suggesting that we need to look attheories and evidence to test them.. One of the problems however, of the positivist approach is that not all ideas are readily quantifiable and there may be problems of pursuing a positivist approach in only looking to test ideas which can be easily tested. This criticism is not however confined to positivist sociologists. Not all sociologists would necessarily believe that we should move towards positivism. There is no one theory of contemporary sociology which is accepted by all sociologists. The original sociologists assumed that the study of sociology would help society to progress to better understanding and this would therefore in turn help to shape better human systems.
He distinguishes sociology from Philosophy by emphasizing on empirical nature of sociology. Durkheim is of view that in order to be objective and scientific; a discipline must deals with “things” and not “ideas” or “concept”. He criticizes the social sciences of his time as for dealing more with ‘concept’ and ‘ideas’ in comparison of
Socialism is the reason this book was created. Socialism is a form of government in which social ownership and democratic control of the means of production is favored over free enterprise in which businesses act and operate competitively without government regulation. Socialism is a form of government in which the government has control over nearly everything, and this then leads to a planned society in which freedoms are lost. Chapter Three in Hayek’s The Road to Serfdom describes that socialism leads to a loss of individualism, and an increase in collectivism. What is collectivism you may ask?
After reading the articles I can say that I disagree with Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau in that I do not believe that we consent to being governed. I agree with Kant, Hume, and Bentham more on this because I believe that consent is not the foundation of government, utility is. We are born wanting autonomy, to be in charge of ourselves, but we form government because it fills a need for societal control. We can not have an absolute democracy because we have class separation. I agree with Lenin on this subject, (go back to sociology book for Karl Marx and social conflict thorme).