While drive-reduction theory focuses primarily on biological needs as motivators, the arousal theory examines the influence of the neurotransmitter dopamine as a motivator in the body. The Arousal theory proposes that motivation is strongly linked to biological factors that control reward sensitivity and goal-driven behavior. The reward system in the human body spurs physiological arousal, which motivates individuals to engage in whatever behavior is necessary to relieve their arousal. Research shows that there tends to be an optimal level of arousal for peak performance; when arousal is very high or very low, performance tends to suffer. Traits like impulsivity and sensation-seeking predispose people to engage in activities that they find
Emotions, environment, and how it affects decisions Why do we feel? We feel based on cause and effect relationship between people and their environment. This relationship has decides how we make judgments and critical thoughts. In Barbara Frederickson 's “love 2.0” she explains the chemical imbalance that happens when humans are loved or falling in love, the same rules for love can be applied to motions in general. In Malcolm Gladwell’s “The Power of Context” he explains the change in human behavior based on the environments that they are in.
Bateman and Fonagy (2004) later defined Mentalization as “the mental process by which an individual implicitly and explicitly interprets the actions of himself and others as meaningful on the basis of intentional mental states such as personal desires, needs, feelings, beliefs and reasons” (Bateman & Fonagy, 2009). To effectively “mentalize”, one must imagine the thoughts and feelings of others; hence, mentalization is a mental process. Quality of mentalization is superior when one is genuinely aware that it is not possible to know what is in someone else’s mind (Bateman & Fonagy, 2004). Based on the content and process of mentalizing, Bateman and Fonagy (Bateman & Fonagy, 2004) categorized mentalization into three dimensions: firstly, two modes of functioning (i.e., implicit and explicit), secondly, two objects (i.e., self and other), and
Herbert Spencer's musings on Social Darwinism started before Charles Darwin's book, The Origin of Species, was even distributed. In any case, when Darwin's speculations were made open, Spencer adjusted his own thoughts to those of natural selection. Darwin believed that the solid survive and will outlast the powerless. Spencer took these thoughts further, asserting that human creatures with budgetary, innovative and physical force will live on, while others are substandard and will vanish (Hawkins, 1997). As the hypotheses have many similitudes, not slightest in their names, it can bring about confusion on where Darwin's speculations end and Spencer's start.
He asks ‘Why do some organisms survive and some perish?”. He then presents his idea that is more fundamental than Darwinian natural selection. Instead of looking at life from the perspective of individual organisms battling for survival, Dr. Dawkins hypothesizes that everything in life has to do with a battle for survival of the genes. He claims that the reason for life is to ensure the survival of DNA. He supports this hypothesis by comparing the cheetah and the gazelle.
Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution i.e. “survival of the fittest” and the “process of natural selection“, was written in 1859 and was a theory based on the behaviour of animals. This theory was adapted by Herbert Spencer and resulted in the ideology that is known today as Social Darwinism. The latter is based on Darwin’s theory but instead of being based on animal behaviour it is applied to humans. It implied that certain races were superior to others because of their technological advancements.
“The human shape I can get now, almost with ease, so that it is lithe and graceful, or thick and strong; but often there is trouble with the hands and claws,—painful things, that I dare not shape to freely. But it is in the subtle grafting and shaping one must needs do to the brain that my trouble lies. The intelligence is often oddly low, with unaccountable blank ends, unexpected gaps. And least satisfactory of all is something I cannot touch, somewhere—I cannot determine where—in the seat of the emotions. Cravings, instincts, desires that harm humanity, a strange hidden
When it comes to the subject of philosophy, there are a few different “branches” people think of: ethics, political or logic, for example. It is not often the case that when people hear the word philosophy that they immediately think of metaphysics; most people do not even know what metaphysics is. Metaphysics is not a type of science like physics is, but rather the study of what is beyond the physical or beyond nature. It deals with topics surrounding change, the universe and what is common to all beings. It is a difficult subject to grasp, which is the most probable reason of why there are many different theories when it comes to these topics.
Two important ideas of Descartes which are 1) perception, reproduction and attention as function of body and 2) animal do not possess soul helped who follow him to study on animals and understand to human behavior. Descartes provide testable hypotheses about relationships between behavior and physiology. He believed in concept of consciousness that was the distinction between human beings and animals. From his influential work, Spinoza and Leibnitz contribute to early development of science of psychology. The rationalist and their followers developed theoretical positions ranging from existence and nature of God to detailed theories of physical and physiological processes.
It is considered that this may be one of the root causes for a childs social interaction and some communication difficulties. It is also though that this may explain some tendancies such as needing structure and routine , and may also be related to their inability to see the bigger ‘picture’. A downside of the mindblindness theory is that it doesn’t really explain the non-social problems that autistic people struggle with. Although theory of mind is not considered to be true empathy – more an inability to read social cues- it is still thought that deficits and delays in empathy can explain much of the difficulties found within autism , while the strengths that they display can be put down to an elevated ability to systemise. Theory of mind is thought to be the ‘thinking ‘ part of empathy , the cognitive part.