The employees were then quizzed to compare their capabilities. When Coleman analyzed the results, he determined that cognitive skills were notably important; however, technical skills and IQ were trumped by the importance of emotional intelligence. Furthermore, Coleman discovered that emotional intelligence played a larger role amongst individuals with higher positions throughout the company. When compared, the average performers showed almost 90% lower levels of emotional intelligence, then their counterparts in higher ranking
employees was more important than physical assets (Becker, 1962). The result of this particular application is a trained human agent-worker-whose enhanced productive capacity is manifested in a stream of services of enhanced value (Reder, 1967). The job characteristics model suggested that increased job satisfaction, motivation and performance are all related to complex jobs (Hackman and Lawler, 1971). Figure 2 illustrates job characteristics that are related to positive outcomes. Those five main characteristics are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback, where each one of these led to one critical psychological state.
PERMA model The PERMA model of Seligman (2011) suggests that people are most happy when they experience positive emotions, engagement, positive relationships, meaning and achievement. Therefore Seligman describes a multimodal construct for which happiness can be measured from these 5 components (fig.1). The PERMA model predecessor was the “Authentic happiness model” of Seligman, in which he first described happiness consisting of three components: meaning, positive emotions and engagement (Seligman, 2003). In Seligman’s recent PERMA model, he states that happiness is a multidimensional subjective construct build up out of the five components. In contrast, others (who are the others?
Affective states raises or lowers the amount of motivation and desire that people experience in order to perform a task, as the level of physiological incite or angst is affected. Positive emotion gives the organism the freedom to analyse and employ in new opportunities (Chiew and Braver, 2011:7). Similarities and differences of motivation and emotion As stated by Explore.com motivation/emotion (2008-2015) numerous psychologists believe that the connection between motivation and emotion caused from three reasons. The incite of emotion and motives of motivation both triggered by behaviour. Emotions often goes conjointly with motives.
There are several theories that were invented as theories that analysis the prevalence of employee and job satisfaction. Since well employee satisfaction is influenced by being satisfied in the workplace, the theories should cover both concepts in order to elaborate more on both concepts. The following are some of the theories invented to elaborate the relationship between both concepts and they are as follows: Affective Event Theory According to Thompson and Phua (2001), cited by Ali, Edwin and Tirimba (2015: 419) the affective event theory was developed by Psychologist Howard M. Weiss and Russell Cropanzano to explain how emotions and moods influence job satisfaction. The theory explains the linkages between employees’ internal influences
and many studies are also employing many researcher that support the claim that positive self-talk can be effective strategy for better performance. Hatzigeorgiadis et al (2004) illustrated the relationship between self talk and confidence. so to rise the level of performance, we have to gain more confidence, which is influenced by positive
Self-efficacy might be part of the Pygmalion effect by “persuasive influence” of others with “positive expectations”. Persuasion is a crucial source of information related to efficacy and is affected by credibility, agreement of multiple sources and knowledge of the source. Persuasive input can include ‘leader’s expectations’ of the efficacy of employees and is considered strong depending on the leader’s credibility. Therefore an employees’ self-efficacy can increase/decrease by the leader’s expectations. Locus of control, a motivational theory consists of both internal and external.
(Tews, Micheal and Stafford,2013. Gin Choi, Kwon and Kim, 2013. Kunda and Lata, 2017) These studies show which themes have a positive or negative relationship on turnover and retention. Stanley et al (2012) discusses how emotional attachment to an organisation shows the strongest negative relationship with turnover intention and turnover. This theory is backed up by Brown, Thomas and Bosselman, (2015) where high turnover rates of generation Y employees are attributed by their lower organizational commitment and organizational