During percussion, the nurse strikes the chest to determine the condition of the underlying tissues. The nurse percusses the lobes of the lungs and over the heart to detect any abnormalities. During auscultation, the nurse places her stethoscope over the lungs and heart to detect abnormal breath sound e.g. stridor, rales, rhonchi etc. Assessment of the respiratory system will enable the nurse to detect the respiratory problems and to make good diagnosis for the patients.
UpToDate: Prior to diagnosis it is important to define the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). According to UpToDate, mild disease is often asymptomatic or very mild, moderate disease includes dyspnea on exertion, and dry cough, and decreased pulmonary function tests, and severe disease is characterized by dyspnea on mild exertion and the need for supplemental oxygen. Treatments include supportive care which involves supplemental oxygen when needed, vaccinations against influenza and pneumonia as these are not tolerated well in IPF patients, patient education, and pulmonary rehabilitation. There are some medications that are available that are being tested in clinical trials or already available to patients. These include Nintedanib and Pirfenidone.
However, if body fails to eliminate the remaining acids, these buffers are soon exhausted, and the pH of body fluids quickly decreases to life threatening levels. By eliminating the carbon dioxide, the lungs can rapidly remove large quantities of fixed acid from the blood. The kidneys also remove fixed acids, but at a slow pace33. Bronchial Asthma “Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by chronic airway inflammation and the diagnosis is usually clinical. It is defined by the history of respiratory symptoms such as wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough that vary over time and in intensity, together with variable expiratory airflow limitation.”34 The following features are typical of asthma and, if present, increase the probability that the patient has asthma:34 • More than one symptom (wheeze, shortness of breath, cough, chest tightness), especially in adults • Symptoms often worse at night or in the early morning • Symptoms vary over time and in intensity • Symptoms are triggered by viral infections (colds), exercise, allergen exposure, changes in weather, laughter, or irritants such as car exhaust fumes, smoke or strong
COPD is referred to both chronic bronchitis and emphysema, the symptoms of COPD are persistent coughing with mucus, shortness in breath, and tightness in the chest, the treatment for COPD is medication and a change in lifestyle, oxygen therapy . Next emphysema is caused by cigarette smoking and other toxins such as industrial chemicals, in developing countries, the smoke that's caused by cooking or heating can cause emphysema. Even though smoking is a huge contributor to emphysema there are minor risk factors such as, a low body weight, child respiratory disorders, an exposure to cigarette smoke, air pollution/smog, and dust(mineral dust, cotton dust), also genetics can a lead cause to emphysema, for instance a close relative of someone with emphysema can or could get the disease themselves. There are three different morphological types of emphysema, centriactinare, panacinar, and paraseptal. Centriacinar emphysema is a form that is connected with long term cigarette smoking and it involves the upper half of a person's lungs, it beings at the respiratory bronchioles and spreads
The absolute most normal causes include: • Inward breath or ingestion of micro-organisms that make bothering the sinuses and influence the invulnerable framework. • Bacterial development in the sinuses because of blockages and bodily fluid development. The cilia of the sinus layers are not ready to work appropriately because of bacterial action, and this causes swelling of the films. • At the point when allergens enter the aviation routes, they can aggravate the sinus films and prompt swelling and irritation. Some normal allergens incorporate dust, and dirt • Viral diseases can influence the cilia and cause an amassing of bodily fluid in the sinus depressions.
Many patients with rheumatoid arthritis can develop lung diseases that affect their life. According to the Arthritis Foundation, “up to 80 percent of people with [rheumatoid arthritis] have some degree of lung involvement, which is usually not severe enough to cause symptoms.”  For instance, people who are at the last stage and have severe inflammation can develop a disease called pulmonary fibrosis, which is a lung disease that makes breathing difficult for patients. Because this disease has no cure, it usually worsens the patient’s condition over time. Furthermore, rheumatoid arthritis can affect the heart when the inflammation damages the endothelial cells that cause the blood vessels to form plaques. These plaques block the blood vessels and cause heart attack and stroke for the
Spirometry is used diagnose conditions that affect breathing such as asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, and cystic fibrosis. Spirometry is used periodically to assess whether breathing problems are under control and how well your medications are working. A nebulizer
The disease is very contagious. This fever can be transmitted by humans from the mouth and nose. Also, this can be spread easily by an infected individual coughing or sneezing in your presence In Frankenstein, Caroline Beaufort catches scarlet fever from Elizabeth. Caroline beaufort’s husband, Alphonse Frankenstein, suffers from the disease which he had carried from other events that took place in his life. Caroline becomes ill with the disease because she cares for Elizabeth and later becomes a victim of airborne respiratory.
Pneumonia and asthma are two kinds of diseases that affect the airways in the lungs. Although both of them are different, they have some common denominators in the cause, symptoms, and the possibility of treating the inflammation at home. Both pneumonia and asthma make the air sacs in the lungs become tighten or blocked by an inflammation. For example, a person can obtain pneumonia or make asthma become worse after getting any upper respiratory infection such as flu or cold. Some symptoms of pneumonia and asthma are similar to each other such as chest pain, coughing, wheezing, and difficulty in breathing.
During the test, you 'll be asked to blow into a large tube connected to a spirometer machine that measures how much air your lungs can hold and how quickly you can blow that air from your lungs. Spirometer test can detect COPD before you even experience any symptoms. Doctors may also use chest X-rays or other tests to help diagnose