Employee Performance Case Study

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Effect of Work Stress on Employee Performance: A Study of Bismillah Textiles Limited
Introduction
1.1 BACKGROUND STUDY
Job or occupational stress has been of great concern to employees and other stakeholders of organizations. Occupational stress researchers agree that stress is a serious problem in many organizations (Cooper and Cartwright, 1994; Varca, 1999; Ornelas and Kleiner 2003). The cost of occupational stress is very high in many organizations in recent times. For instance, the International Labour Organisation (ILO) reports that inefficiencies arising from occupational stress may cost up to 10 percent of a country‘s GNP (Midgley, 1996).
Occupational stress is defined as the perception of a discrepancy between environmental demands
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However, by generalizing, we can compile a list of stressors that are typically experienced as negative or positive to most people, most of the time.
Examples of negative personal stressors can include: conflict in interpersonal relationships, bankruptcy/money problem, sleep problem, children‘s problem at school, legal problems, inadequate or substandard housing, excessive job demands, job insecurity, conflicts with team mates and supervisors, lack of training necessary to do a job, making presentation in fronts of colleagues or clients, unproductive and time consuming meetings, commuting and travel schedules (Ornelas & Kleiner, 2003).
Examples of positive personal stressors might include: receiving a promotion at work, starting a new job, marriage or commitment ceremony, buying a home, having a child, transfers, taking or planning a vacation, holiday season, retiring, taking educational classes or learning a new hobby (Ornelas & Kleiner, 2003).
Internal sources of stress and
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This theory has also been referred to as the stimulus-response interaction (Greenberg, 1999). The interactional approach stipulates that situational variable interact with personal variable from which stress result (Ryan, 1996).
Current research supports the theoretical construct set forth by the interactional approach. Fogerty et al. (1999) conducted four separate studies which analyzed occupational stress, strain and coping through path analysis. Decker and Borgon (1993) also advocated for an intersectional approach for researchers interested in studying variables related to occupational stress, strain, and coping because they feel it ―fully examines the individual‘s unique psychological experience of work‖. (p.477).
Cox and Mckay (1996) took the interactional approach to stress one step further and have proposed that there is another to this approach (Cox, 1978). This theory has been referred to as transactional (Greenbery, 1999). The Transactional approach incorporates the stimulus, response, cognitive appraisal of the stressors, coping style of the individual psychological defenses, and social milieu into account (Folkman and Lazarus, 1988 a, 1988b).
2.2.3 Role

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