Over the last years, organizations have observed vast changes in society and especially in the workplace. Scientist believes that the problem of workplace stress has developed in many countries, and research has helped in establishing the connection between stress and ill health and job stressors and strain outcomes. Occupational stress has been formed and adapted by effective and dominant cultural, political, social and economic forces in which jobs happen and in which individual react to their work experiences. (Kenny&Cooprer, 2003) Stress is psychological and physical reaction to specific life events or circumstances. The development of stress starts with life experience and situation that may cause stress.
The top event is identified and the scope of FTA is defined in the second and third steps. In the fourth step, the root causes of top event are investigated and the basic events leading to the occurrence of top event are recognized. Then, the identified basic events are categorized based on the availability of historical data into probabilistic and possibilistic. The probabilistic and possibilistic events are represented by objective and subjective probability, respectively. Then, the fault scenarios leading to the occurrence of top event are identified by constructing the FT structure.
Vice versa, many people are experiencing family stress, such as marital conflict and child-rearing stress, and they may bring stress to work from home. These two phenomena have been termed ‘work-family conflict’ or ‘work-family spillover’. Understandably, work-family conflict hurts both work and family. The observation that family stress is one major source of life stress and impairs workplace performance has been well known. Those with more work-family conflict do poorly at work.
Musculoskeletal disorders related to work and deemed compensable have become a major public health problem in industrialized countries. Those involved in workplace health are being pressed to provide answers to a broad range of questions concerning the development and control of musculoskeletal problems. School teachers are among the group which appears to suffer from MSDs. Due to long work hours, dissatisfaction from work, work environment, stress, low family and community support are related to Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The teachers reported respectively musculoskeletal pain at specific body parts like eyes, neck, throat shoulder, back, hand, and legs.
Compassion fatigue and burnout have a synergistic relationship (Gentry, et al, 2002). Burnout originally described by Freudenberger (1975) occurs when a person becomes both physically and mentally exhausted due to continually experiencing high demand and stressful situations. The symptoms and presentation of this condition varies from person to person (Freudenberger, 1975). Burnout is related to the work environment, with chronic occupational stress resulting in diminished job satisfaction. Burnout usually involve general work stress (long hours, high caseloads) but which however can result in exhaustion and decreased sense of accomplishment at work (Hyden, et al, 2015) Hence, burnout plays a major role in the development of and can directly contribute to a person’s overall compassion
(c) “Acute job insecurity at the individual level” is often experienced when there is an obvious fact that there will be job loss. (d) “Anticipation of job loss” that occurs when downsizing has begun in real terms. Workplace stress derives from many sources. It can be a demanding boss, annoying co-workers, rebellious students, angry customers, hazardous conditions, long commutes and a never-ending workload. Your work performance is also affected by stressors such as family
Take for instance, if you spend an entire day with a student, it is highly expected to hear them complain about being under a tremendous amount of stress. We may ask ourselves, “What really is this stress?” According to the Oxford Dictionary, stress is defined as “A state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances”. There are several contributing factors that can lead to stress and the negative impact it has on people, not to mention the different types of stress that they may experience. Stress affects many persons and people often seek a way to get rid of it, or at the very least, try to cope with it. Stress may be different among varying individuals despite having common effects on a large scale.
Adding to the theory, the fourth contribution advances Daft and Weick’s "general model of organizational sensemaking". While in this paper we have operationalized sensemaking perspective in three sensitizing concepts, our starting point is to study the sensemaking process as a whole. This is in line with Sandberg and Tsoukas (2015), who promote a holistic approach containing the three elements of "creation, interpretation, and enactment" which are closely interdependent. Tracing these connected elements back to their origins, this paper relates the holistic approach to the three elements of information scanning, interpretation and learning of the Daft and Weick model (1984/2001). Based on the longitudinal analysis, we can identify a pattern in how the change agents affected sustainability sensemaking.
In recent years researchers have tried to extend the JCM by trying to incorporate various other parameters in the model. Parker (2008) reviewed and suggested some of the approaches. Extended Job characteristics: the updated set contains 21 work characteristics classified under 4 categories (i) Task motivation and work characteristics (ii) Knowledge motivation characteristics (iii) Social work characteristics (iv) contextual characteristics. These categories include wide range of work characteristics like job autonomy, skill variety, social support, feedback, work conditions etc. (Morgeson & Humphery, 2006; (Grant, Fried, & Juillerat, 2011).
Labour turnover is an important and pervasive feature of the labour market. (Martin C., 2003:391) Labour turnover affects both workers and the firms. Workers experience disruption, the need to learn new job-specific skills and find different career prospects. Firms suffer the loss of job-specific skills, disruption in production and incur the costs of hiring and training new workers. (http://www.le.ac.uk/economics/research) Organizations of all types are giving increased attention to a common problem of business-employee turnover.