there are certainly successful language learner , not least among English language teacher , who have come through An English Language Training curriculum where the focus has been on a study of the formal system of English and where classroom practice has been less than interactive . Manage a communicative classroom ; many communicative tasks involve learners in face-to-face encounters
Since the approaches discussed in the first part rely heavily on social interacting and social representations, a reflection is required on the ways in which values are negotiated and agreed upon. The discussion of sensitive matters such as gender discrimination in teacher training is a first step towards ensuring a healthy social environment within the learning group. Even in the context of the language learning discourses are socially constructed, which is something that bears an influence not only on the oral and written production of learners, but also the very social dynamic of the class. The chapter that discusses this aspect, which can be broadly referred to as the politics of language teaching, is followed by another that examines teachers’ attitudes and needs towards innovation by means of the analysis of the results of a survey conducted both in Europe and the US on how teachers value the latest methods and approaches in language teaching and on the ways in which ICT has been used in the context of TBLT. This part of the book is rounded off by two studies targeting pre service teacher students and examining their prospects of professional development.
Language, Culture and Learning Portfolio. Word Count: 5,498 Contents Contents……………………………pg.2 Framing Statement……………… pg. 3 Language Autobiography……… pg. 5 Place of English………………….. pg.11 Case Study………………………... pg.17 References………………………... pg.26 Appendices………………………. Pg.28 Framing Statement Doecke and McKnight argue that for English Trainee Teachers ‘Their learning is driven by their beliefs and values rather than being shaped by what – to borrow the language of professional standards – English teachers should supposedly know and do (, 2003, p. 305).
One of the learning outcomes are it helps children to enhance their understanding of the ways their own language (s) works and help them to develop the strategies for learning new languages. Besides, by using Language Awareness Approach, children can explore new languages and discuss similarities and differences among the languages. Last but not least, children get to discover the relationship between language and identity through Language Awareness Approach. The activities that I planned for the children will strike a balance between teacher-directed and child-centred because language learning is about both explicit and implicit knowledge. One of the activities is use alphabet crafts of English uppercase letters to teach the Mandarin names for some animals.
In learner-centred learning, students "construct knowledge through gathering and synthesizing information and integrating it with the general skills of inquiry, communication, critical thinking, problem solving and so on" (Perumal, 2015). How do learners learn in learner-centred teaching? The term 'learner-centred' depicts that learners are the active agents who determine how learning occurs. They "influence the content, activities, materials, and pace of learning" (Froyd & Simpson, 2000) and thus take responsibility of their own learning. The teacher, who takes the role of facilitator and coach, plays the key role of creating the necessary environment for the students so that they can learn independently.
My main focus is the importance of cultural competence in language teaching/learning. However, I also acknowledge that linguistics and communicative competencies are vital areas of language learning. In coming up with a theory of practice, it is essential to examine the qualities that make up a good teacher and put into consideration the needs of a learner. Teaching/learning a language is indeed a complex issue and is much more than most teachers perceive it to be. Initially, I had a narrow idea of teaching/learning English language as just about vocabulary and grammar rules.
Firstly, communicative competence which is the main goal of the strategies is contributed thanks to language learning strategies. Another feature of language learning strategies is becoming self-directed. Language learners will not always have guide teacher because they also use the language outside of the classroom. That’s why self direction is especially essential for language learners. (Oxford, 1990) Roles of the teachers are another feature of language learning strategies.
According to McLaughlin (1992), learning a second language takes long, it is hard and complex, for both children and adults. Therefore, it is essential for teachers to know how learners acquire a second language, understand what the learner needs to learn (McLaughlin, 2013) as well as have an in-depth knowledge of the language; because a teacher’s understanding of the language affects the way he/she teaches. Surely, language teaching and learning is much more than just acquiring grammar, vocabulary and the four skills but social, cultural, economic, and political factors greatly influence it. However, in this paper I intend to discuss my personal understanding of a good theory of practice in English language teaching (ELT) with a focus on cultural competence, while acknowledging the importance of linguistic and communicative competencies. I refer to culture as people’s approach to life; their way of living and thinking and transmitting meaning to one another (Jiang, 2000).
Attitudes towards the language community are relevant to the social aspect and cultural implication of SLA such as attitudes towards ethnocentrism (Gardner, 1982). Regarding the importance of attitude towards learning, Kara (2010) declared that while teachers help learners to acquire the knowledge, skills and values of society, the attitudes of the learners towards learning establish one of the most crucial subjects among the skills and knowledge acquired in education. Gardner believes that these two types of attitudes influence the achievement in second language learning. However, he claims that ‘attitudes towards learning the language are more closely related with achievement than attitudes towards the second language community’ (Darmah, n. d. p. 3). Attitudes influence inner mood, behavior and learning ( İnal , Evin & Saracaloğlu, n.d.).
"success in language learning is inextricably linked to the way in which learners experience the classroom: as a place where their weaknesses will be revealed or as a space for growth and development." (de Andrés, 1999, p.89). Taking this statement into account, the approach used for learning in the classroom plays a significant role. Nunan (1989) establishes four types of learners which are: Type 1: 'Concrete' learners These learners tend to like games, pictures, films, video, using cassettes, talking in pairs and practising English outside class. Type 2: 'Analytical' learners These learners like studying grammar, studying English books and reading newspapers, studying alone, finding their own mistakes and working on problems set by the teacher.