2.1.1. The Social Responsibility theory is a variation on the Authoritarian and Libertarian theories. Its main concern is the reconciliation of the ideas about freedom and independence while still adhering to its responsibility towards society. Its proposal puts forward regulatory bodies such as ICASA (Independent Communications Authority of South Africa) and professional bodies such as SANEF (South African National Editors Forum) as possible solutions to the problem of freedom reconciliation with regards to social responsibility (Fourie, 2007:194). 2.1.2.
According to Lena Dominelli and Malcolm Payne, anti-oppressive practice is a type of social work practice that concentrates on social inequality and structural shortfalls in the relationship between social workers and the service user. (Payne, 2002). This type of social work practice addresses the service user’s needs despite their social status by providing a suitable and responsive approach. Central to anti-oppressive practice is a humanistic and person centered approach which incorporates egalitarian values that are concerned with the implementation of social justice. (Dominelli,
The ways in which these social structures can affect certain groups as a whole determine the successes and drawbacks of an individual’s life. Using a group centered approach as a tool to identify these structural inequalities is essential because it is only after structural inequalities are defined that we can then work to remedy them. In order to accurately judge what is just and fair and what is not, structural inequalities must be identified. A focus on groups allows this particular kind of inequality to come into focus, subsequently enabling us to move forward and address the inequality. Young asserts that “evaluating inequality in terms of social groups enables us to claim that some inequalities are unjust because such group-based comparison helps reveal important aspects of institutional relations and processes” (Young 2001, pg 2).
The theoretical framework guiding the research study is Olson’s (1965) theory of collective action. The theory’s origin can be traced back to rational choice theory and early group theories. It combines ideas from economics, politics, and social sciences in an attempt to explain individual behavior and group action. Especially, the theory’s application to diverse fields of study and its continued relevance in explaining individual behavior make it suitable for the exploration of the relationship between ICT use and citizenship norms. With regard to the proposed study, the argument can be made that Olson’s (1965) theory is relevant and appropriate as society and government are inherently efforts of collective action.
In order to test the veracity of the information gathered and to expound on and expand the discussion on the topic under review, it is important to assess existing research. This review of literature focuses on the adult education and social entrepreneurship with specific reference to the importance of the adult educator and the social entrepreneurship practitioner as drivers of development the communities in which they work. It also highlights challenges that practitioners may face in the execution of their duties. The prevailing socio-economic challenges in Jamaica are given special attention since these affect the entire population, especially the un-attached youth. Special emphasis is also placed on charting the progress of social entrepreneurship
This is very true as Maldonado Torres (2007,243), explains that coloniality is an embedded logic , and it forces control and domination of Europeans in Africa mainly through the schooling system. South African schools are segregated by class, gender, and race. This segregation in the South African schooling system came from a religious perspective. It was an initiative of the Church Council in 1676, following an opening of the second European type of school in South Africa in 1663. This type of segregation still exists in our schools and the society at large, and now it is driven by socioeconomic circumstances among the people of South Africa.
1- Theoretical background: 1-1 Empowerment: The concept of empowerment has been a dominant key word for international policy-making , its precise definition and meaning have been long debated (Anna, Chandler, Jansen and Mero, 2000; McGehee and Kim, 2004) In the development literature, Friedman (1992) places empowerment at the forefront of the movement toward the type of development which is centered “on people and their environment rather than production and profits.” one of the most commonly agreed upon definitions of empowerment is by Rappaport (1987):“the ability of people, organizations, and communities to gain mastery over their affairs.” . Similarly Sadan (1997) defines empowerment as “a process of transition from a state of powerlessness to a state of relative control over one’s life, destiny and environment.”
• To improve the African continent by promoting research in as many fields as possible. • To promote human rights in agreement with the African charter. (Landsberg, 2006) These objectives where identified by the Strategic Indicative Plan of the Organ (SIPO) which contains the same goals and ambitions as the South African Development Community (SADC). Their aim and Objective is to present strategies that will be in parallel with the peace and security agenda held by the African Union (AU). SIPOs priority is
Empowerment travels from providing power to achieve an end to achieving power as an end in itself. So it is in a way providing authority to somebody on their own life. It relates to decision making power of marginalized groups in consideration to inter-personal and intra-personal choices. In the periphery of empowerment may come social empowerment, legal empowerment, political empowerment, cultural empowerment and economic empowerment etc. as Batliwala
Introduction In South Africa developmental discourse gained dominance, often presented from a neoliberal perspective of entrepreneurship and free market participation. Social development 's social justice aims include promoting social and economic development, facilitating participation of the socially excluded; improving the quality of life of people; building human capabilities; promoting social integration; and promoting human rights (Midgley, 2001; Patel, 2005; Patel & Midgley, 2004, cited by Patel, Hochfeld, Graham & Selipsky, 2008). In itself, social development pursues important social justice ideals; however, when transposed onto a neoliberal capitalist agenda, it becomes co-opted for the maintenance of the corporatist and capitalist