Structure of Emtricitabine b) Chemical Name / IUPAC Name: 4-amino-5-fluoro-1-[(2R,5S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl]-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one c) Molecular Formula: C8H10FN3O3S d) Molecular Weight: 247.248 g/mol e) Description: white to off-white crystalline solid f) Melting point: 136 °C to140 °C g) Solubility: Freely soluble in methanol and in water; practically insoluble in methylene chloride. h) pKa value: 2.65 i) Route of administration: Oral j) Excretion: Renal (86%) and fecal (14%) k) Metabolism: Hepatic oxidation and glucuronidation CYP system not involved l) Storage: Store at 25 °C (77 °F); excursions permitted to 15 °C-30 °C (59 °F-86 °F) m) Trade name: Emtriva, Truvada (a fixed-dose combination with Tenofovir), Atripla (A fixed-dose triple combination of Emtricitabine, Tenofovir and Efavirenz) 2.2.4 Drug profile of Tenofovir:
Summary: Prior to starting my research, I had a very rudimentary understanding of IPF. As I look at my research I am able to connect some of the pathophysiology to the tests that are usually performed for diagnosis. For example, the increase scarring and deposition of fibrotic tissue in the lung is seen as reticulonodular opacities on a chest x-ray. Additionally, the spirometry test results are consistent with my understanding of restrictive diseases and their effects on FEV1 and FVC. As far as the treatments go, Pirfenidone is an anti-fibrotic agent that inhibits collagen synthesis and slows the progression of the disease by reducing the amount of connective tissue deposition in the lungs.
Briefly, the cartridges were preconditioned by flushing with 2 mL of methanol and 1 mL of HPLC water. Separately, 50 µL of plasma sample plus 100 µL of an 85% phosphoric acid:water mixture (1:10) and 10 µL of internal standard solution (diclofenac at 100 µg/mL) were vortex mixeding. Then, samples were loaded into the cartridge and allowed to stand for 5 min, washed with 0.6 mL of a water:methanol mixture (95:5. v/v) and then dried under vacuum. The (S)-ketoprofen was eluted with 1 mL of an acetonitrile:methanol mixture (50:50, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The eluate was evaporated to dryness in a water bath at 37.0 ± 0.5 ᵒC under a gentle stream of nitrogen.
200 µl of lysis buffer (2 % Triton X-100, 1% SDS, 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM Tris-HCl), 1mM EDTA, pH 8.0 and 0.2 g of glass beads were added to each Eppendorf tube. Then 200 µl of the solution phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) was added to the tubes under the fume hood and tubes were placed on rotator and left to mix for 3 min. 200 µl of TE buffer was added and spun for 5 min at maximum speed, the water phase was transferred to new tubes. 1 ml of cold 96 % ethanol was added, mixed and then spun for 5 min at maximum speed at 4°C. the supernatant was discarded and the pellet re-suspended in 400 µl of TE buffer (40 mM Tris-Base, 20 mM acetic acid, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0).
Antibiotics tested included: gentamicin, teicoplanin, rifampicin, doxycycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin, cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, linezolid and mupirocin. 2.3.2. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by Etest Isolates resistant to cefoxitin were submitted to the Etest () to determine the sensitivity to vancomycin. S. aureus ATCC 29213 was used as the quality control in each set of tests. Isolates showing inhibition zones of 30 μg cefoxitin (Oxoid, Cambridge, UK) disk, and that were positive for mecA gene by PCR, were characterized as MRSA.
EXENATIDE Pharmacology Exenatide is a synthetic form of naturally occurring peptide Exendin-4 in Gila monster 16. It has 50% of sequence homology with native GLP-1 with the substitution of amino acid Arg with Gly at 2nd position, which provides resistance against DPP-4 and a half life of ~2-4hr. It is administered 60min before breakfast and dinner, with a predominant effect of reduction in PPG (Postprandial glucose) 17. Exenatide is rapidly absorbed following subcutaneous administration and eliminated through kidneys after proteolytic degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase IV.18 Clinical Pharmacology The efficacy and safety of exenatide (5µg and 10µg) administered in patients with T2DM has been assessed in a series of 30-week clinical studies called AMIGO (AC2993 Diabetes Management for Improving Glucose Outcomes).19 AMIGO were triple blind, placebo-controlled studies where more no. of patients treated
Patient’s laboratory findings were ; creatinin: 1.02 mg/dl, albumin: 2.9 mg/dl, Total bilurubin: 4.0 mg/dl, ALT:22 IU/L AST:20 IU/L, hemoglobin:10.6 gr/dl, platelet: 232.000, protrombin time: 18.7 sn, INR: 1.37, serum protein elektrophoresis: beta-gamma bridging, serum-ascites albumin gradient: 2.1 gr/dl, AFP: 6000 IU/ml, CA 19.9-CA 125-CEA: negatif, HBsAg (+), HBeAg (-), HBV DNA: 61.700 IU/ml, HDV (-), AntiHCV (-), markers for otoimmun hepatites and other etiological tests were negative. The patient was diagnosed as chronic dekompansated liver parenchymal disease due to ethanol taking and chronic heatitis B (HBV) infection. His Child-Pugh score was 9.0 (B) and MELD score was 15. He had not hepatic encephalophaty and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis infection. Stage 2 oesophageal varices were present at his gastroscopic study.
Accurately weighed 50 mg (dried at 1000C, 3h) of stevioside standard was taken in a 100 ml volumetric flask and diluted to volume with mobile phase. Then, accurately weighed 70 - 120 mg of the sample was taken in 100 ml volumetric flask and diluted with the mobile phase. Supelcosil LC-NH2 (length: 15 - 30 cm; inner diameter: 3.9 - 4.6 mm) column was used. The flow rate was adjusted so that the retention time of stevioside is about 10