Encryption In Information Security

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Encryption:
The word encryption comes from the Greek word kryptos, meaning hidden or secret. The use of encryption is nearly as old as the art of communication itself.

Encryption is the conversion of electronic data into another form, called ciphertext, which cannot be easily understood by anyone except authorized parties.

The primary purpose of encryption is to protect the confidentiality of digital data stored on computer systems or transmitted via the Internet or other computer networks. Modern encryption algorithms play a vital role in the security assurance of IT systems and communications as they can provide not only confidentiality, but also the following key elements of security:
1.Authentication
2.Integrity
3.non-repudiation

TYPES
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For this reason, they only protect from snooping on wireless and not after the information leaves the access point onto a wired network.

Cryptography – Benefits:
Cryptography is an essential information security tool. It provides the four most basic services of information security −

• Confidentiality − Encryption technique can guard the information and communication from unauthorized revelation and access of information.

• Authentication − The cryptographic techniques such as MAC and digital signatures can protect information against spoofing and forgeries.

• Data Integrity − The cryptographic hash functions are playing vital role in assuring the users about the data integrity.
• Non-repudiation − The digital signature provides the non-repudiation service to guard against the dispute that may arise due to denial of passing message by the sender.
All these fundamental services offered by cryptography has enabled the conduct of business over the networks using the computer systems in extremely efficient and effective
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The network or the computer system can be attacked and rendered non-functional by an intruder.
• High availability, one of the fundamental aspects of information security, cannot be ensured through the use of cryptography. Other methods are needed to guard against the threats such as denial of service or complete breakdown of information system.
• Another fundamental need of information security of selective access control also cannot be realized through the use of cryptography. Administrative controls and procedures are required to be exercised for the same.
• Cryptography does not guard against the vulnerabilities and threats that emerge from the poor design of systems, protocols, and procedures. These need to be fixed through proper design and setting up of a defensive infrastructure.
• Cryptography comes at cost. The cost is in terms of time and money − o Addition of cryptographic techniques in the information processing leads to delay. o The use of public key cryptography requires setting up and maintenance of public key infrastructure requiring the handsome financial

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