Wardhaugh (1998) argues that language is a bearer of culture and understanding the norms of a given culture is the key to learn its language (as cited in Soori & Sherafat, 2015). Holster (2005) believes also that “language is a carrier of culture and understanding culture is integral to learning and understanding a language. Because language and culture are so inextricably related, it is not possible to understand or appreciate the one without knowledge of the other " (p. 7). Moreover, the relation between culture and language is more explained by Henslin (2004) as follows
It is “language” in the broadest sense, language working in the world & including those who make language as well as that of which language is made. It is important to note, then, that we (as conventional beings) are embodied by cultural metaphor. We are metaphoric creatures, created by culture. On the other hand, we (as creative cultural beings) embody our cultural metaphors. As artists, scientists, mystics, we make & re-make those metaphors & thus society
Wheel theory of love is presented by Reiss’s. There are two most crucial concepts of the underlying theory which include self-revelation and rapport. The effective communication has a direct relationship with the wheel theory of love. If there will be effective communication, both of the concepts of the wheel theory of love will be accomplished. Every type of communication, whether it is verbal or written, there is a need that the communication must be effective (Knapp et.al, 2013).
It is the vital way of communication performed among humans, has an important role in “defining and expressing the world that is around us.” It is how we send out a message to other people. Language is further defined as “the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and language is any specific example of such a system.” This paper aims to investigate the cultural aspect of communication which is referred to as pragmatics. Cutting (2008) “describes pragmatics as a field of linguistics which examines the language and language variations according to the contexts in which they are used. One of the most prominent contexts of the language is the cultural environment in which the language is used”. La Castro (2012) “states that actions such as asking someone to close the door or ordering coffee at a coffee shop are closely related
Ideology works largely by creating forms of "common sense," of the taken-for-granted in everyday life. ” ideologies are systems of belief that exist within all cultures, images” (Sturken & Cartwright 2001:21). In order to explore the meaning of images, one would have to acknowledge that they are produced within dynamics of social power and ideology. Aesthetic is an ideological necessity because it shows how people can be brought together and uses ‘individual experiences’ to produce a sense of community, which then embodies ideology (Cavallaro 2001:77).Images are elements used in advertising and consumer culture. They makes us conform to the standards and ideologies that are reinforced in society.
Rogers defines the self concept as an organised, consistent and conceptual gestalt comprising of perceptions in the form of 'I ' or 'me ' and the perception of the relationships between 'I ' or 'me ' with others to the various aspects of life along with the values attached to these perceptions. The self concept includes four factors: Rogers approach to personality is well appreciated because his self theory emphasises that the best way to understand behaviour is by using the internal frame of reference of the individual himself. According to Rogers, self actualisation is the primary motivating force in a person 's life providing them to actualise, maintain or enhance themselves so as to become the "best" that their inherent nature will permit them to do. Factors/Key determinants of personality Personality as an emerging developmental science: Research, Current Progress and Future Prospects There has been a significant amount of work done or research in the field of personality. Listed below are few important researches done by authors with a brief description of their study: 1) Dimensions of
( Dillion, 156) . He he proposed that society is an activity framework with four subsystems that are the center institutional structure of every single present day society, and are fundamental in the support of social request Due to his attention on these four subsystems and their practical centrality to framework harmony, Parsons is thought to be a supporter of functionalism, as well as an auxiliary functionalist. (Thomas,
INTRODUCTION: Culture is basically a characteristic or a knowledge of group of people and a combination of different hierarchies, religion, attitudes, beliefs, values etc. Culture is just a collective name of all the behaviors which are acquire and most of the time transmitted by means of symbols. So this point shows that cultural behavior is symbolic behavior. It’s just a essential feature for the existence of society. As we all know that culture plays an important role everywhere in the world.
This importance of meanings is also the basis of Raymond Williams 's definition of culture. In The Long Revolution, he spoke of three definitions of culture: ideal, documentary and social. Ideal culture is a state or process of human perfection with a permanent reference to universal values; documentary culture is the body of intellectual and imaginative words that record human thought and experience; social culture is a whole way of life 'which expresses certain meanings and values not only in art and learning but also in institutions and ordinary behaviour