The endocrine system is such an important system to the body because it functions the bodies use of hormones. The body uses many different hormones and the endocrine system regulates these. When the glands of the endocrine system secrete the hormones, the hormones are put into the bloodstream to be sent to the different parts of the body. The glands that comprise the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the pineal gland which are all located in the brain, the thyroid, parathyroid, and thymus which are located in the throat, the adrenals and pancreas which are located in the body’s midsection, and the ovaries (female) and testes (male) which are located in the pelvic region. The system is so important because it regulates the body’s metabolism, growth and sexual development, digestion, heart rate, and many of the other body functions regulated by hormones.
From the synaptic cleft, the ACh binds to the receptors located on the muscle fiber’s plasma membrane. After the ACh has found its way to the receptors and is bound to them, the muscle fibers become stimulated. The stimulated muscle fibers result in an impulse being generated. This impulse travels down the membrane until it reaches the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum. The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum is responsible for regulating the Ca2+ ion concentration.
They exert a wide range of functions in neuronal/glial proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, as well as in maintaining the membrane permeability to ions and in the stabilization of synaptic transporters and receptors, the latest processes relevant to the generation and propagation of the nervous impulse and synaptic transmission.20,39,40 Moreover, cell and animal models underscore the key function of sphingolipids in the neurite growth and myelination of the cerebellum and forebrain, among other brain regions.41,42 Deficiency of ceramide synthase-2 that generates sphingolipids with C22-C24 fatty acyl chains results in 50% loss of compacted myelin and 80% loss of CNS myelin basic protein.42 Similarly, a 60% reduction of myelin-associated glycoprotein in the cerebellum and forebrain characterizes mice deficient in ceramide synthase-1, the enzyme that generates C18:0 sphingolipids.41 Interestingly, mice deficient of ceramide synthase -6, which generates C16:0 sphingolipids, as well as mice deficient of GM3 synthase that is responsible for one of the first steps in the production of gangliosides, both present hyperactive behavior and have been postulated as suitable animal models for
There are three separate forces that passively affect how potassium moves through cell channels. One way that affects it is the chemical gradient that occurs and pushes the element out of the cell to re-balance the chemical concentration. When the ions are then pushed out of the cell, automatically, they are drawn back to the cell. The molecule's positive charge is attracted to the negative charge of the proteins inside the cell, where therefore creates the chemical gradient. A second way is when the chemical and electrical gradients go up against one another because they urge the potassium ions to move in opposite direction, this therefore creates an electrochemical gradient.
Elevated low-density lipoproteins or LDL cholesterol is strongly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events.48 The majority of the cholesterol in the blood is contained in low-density lipoprotein which transports cholesterol from the liver to nerve tissues, cell membranes, and other cells for metabolic purposes. The cholesterol in atherosclerotic plague is derived mainly from excess LDL cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein is believed to function as a retrieval service, removing cholesterol from the circulation to the liver for excretion.48 For this reason, HDL is often referred to as the “healthy” or “good” cholesterol. Accumulation of more and more fatty substances in the walls of the arteries result in stenosis (occlusion) of the lumen of the blood vessel that decreases the blood flow volume. The rough surface created by atherosclerotic plague increases the probability of a thrombosis because the platelets are designed to aggregate or attach to the rough surfaces.
Describe how the hormones of the pancreas regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood (4 points). Insulin is used by the pancreas in response to when the body’s level of blood glucose is too high, and glucagon is inhibited. Insulin performs the job of taking glucose into the liver and helps store glucose as glycogen within the body. When the blood glucose level of the body gets to low the body will inhibit the secretion of insulin, so that glucagon can do its job. What glucagon does is it takes the stored glycogen and lets it be released back out into the bloodstream so the body can have more energy.
The proteins that carry out the active transport then pump a specific solute through a membrane in the opposite direction to that of diffusion, consuming ATP. The active transport modes through a membrane are three: • primary active transport - if the transport proteins transfer only one substance in one direction. • coupled transport - if transport proteins transfer two substances in the same direction. • Antiporter - if the transport proteins transfer two substances in opposite directions, one towards the inside and the other towards the outside of the cell. As a result, the main differences among the different type of diffusion and transport is that free diffusion and facilitated diffusion does not need energy and their driving force is the gradient of concentration, the only difference between the two is that the facilitated diffusion needs a membrane protein.
On the other hand chlorine when reacts with any substance it adds chlorine molecule or substitutes chlorine atom from substance. Chlorine dioxide responds specifically with amino acids and the RNA in the cell. It is not clear whether chlorine dioxide attacks the cell structure or the acids inside the cell. The generation of proteins is avoided. Chlorine dioxide influences the cell layer by changing film proteins and fats and by anticipation of
CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE INTRODUCTION The pancreas is a glandular organ in the upper abdomen, it is considered into two glands and have different of action, these are the endocrine and exocrine gland. In the endocrine part it is responsible for the production of hormones in the so-called islets of Langerhans. In the islets it contains endocrine cells which produce specific cells called an Alpha cell which is responsible for the release of the hormone glucagon, the Beta cells which releases insulin in response to high glucose levels and the Delta cells which produces somatostatin which blocks the secretion of insulin and glucagon. These hormones work together to maintain the serum glucose level within normal limits. The energy source