FETAL DISTRESS The terms fetal distress and birth asphyxia are broad terms which may point at an adverse condition affecting the fetus. Fetal distress is a a term used to describe a situation where the clinician feels that the fetus is hypoxic or acidotic or is at risk of becoming so and this concern is significant enough to warrant intervention, usually in the form of operative delivery100. Fetal asphyxia is clinically defined as progressive hypoxaemia and hypercapnia with significant metabolic acidemia100. In practice, obstetricians put great emphasis on monitoring of the fetal heart rate patterns as the main means of assessing fetal well- being in labour, whether done by intermittent auscultation or continuous electronic methods. However,
But when its present we should make an examination for finding primary tumor. We aimed in this case report when a splenic metastasis occur, we should think hepatocellular carcinoma as a primary tumor. Key words: hepatocellular carcinoma, splenic metastasis,
Surgical Repair If the thoracic aortic aneurysm become larger or you are already causing symptoms, you will need a quick treatment to prevent a rupture from occurring. The weakened section of the vessel can be replaced with a stent graft of artificial material and surgically removed. If the aortic aneurysm is so close to the aortic valve (the one that regulates blood flow from the heart into the aorta), a valve should be replace if the physician recommended it during the
The AFP is a blood test that determines the amount of AFP that has entered the mother's bloodstream from the fetus. This test might also be part of a triple screen, a procedure that searches for defects in the neural tubes and other anomalies that may be going on. If for some reason spina bifida was not diagnosed before birth, it can still be done post-birth by CT, MRI, or x-ray. On an infant spina bifida can present as a small patch of skin with hair on the back
When new x-ray equipment is procured, the ideal situation is that a specification is laid down, as far as possible, concerning performance, safety and other characteristics of the system. 4.3 Training of radiographers and physicians Image analysis.Training is needed to notice a pattern especially when there is more than one cue. Both radiographers and physicians need to focus on suspicious areas such as the lightness of an image, the gray scale or blurriness of the image taking into account the neonates’ pathology or specific region of interest chest/abdomen. An image critique form can be used for this. 4.4 Improving technical charts A radiographic technique chart should be available for use with every mobile machine.
1. Describe the disease process with presenting signs and symptoms. Cervical cancer develops when abnormal cells on the cervix start growing out of control. The location of the cervix is in the lower portion of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervical cancer is found through a Pap smeat test and can be effectively treated if found in it’s early stages.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of CT scan in diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma taking histopathology as the gold standard. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION Bronchogenic Carcinoma All those patients who had a pulmonary lesion on X ray along with history of symptoms like hemoptysis, weight loss, and recurrent pleural effusion etc. will be taken as possible cases of bronchogenic carcinoma. Diagnostic Accuracy of the investigation will be assessed via sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of CT scan taking histopathology findings as true negative or positive. MATERIALS AND
Because hormones and genetic factors can cause gynecomastia, the plastic surgeon may need to refer a patient to an endocrinologist for either (1) blood and urine studies that would show elevated hormone levels or (2) genetic studies that would show the count and other details of the patient’s chromosomes. An abnormal testicular exam will prompt the surgeon to order an ultrasound of the testes. The surgeon may wish to obtain a mammogram to rule out a breast tumor, which, though unlikely, can occur in men especially with asymmetric breast
This findings are concerning enough to prompt the surgeon to consider operative exploration. After stabilizing the fluid and electrolyte imbalance, the surgery was taken. Exploratory laparotomy showed extended stomach and first two parts of the duodenum, free cecum in the upper part of the abdomen, malrotation with Ladd's band extending from the colon to the liver pressing the second part of the duodenum. The bands were cut freeing the duodenum. Interior duodenal stenosis also was found so Duodenoduodenostomy (diamond) was performed with Ladd's procedure after Gastro-jejunostomy (Omega) was made.
Main ethical issues are terminations of pregnancies in case of malformations, which may be supposed as eugenical abortion, inform consent and problem of decision-making process. This problem is closely related to moral status of fetus, ethical issue about the value of life and problem of what kind of condition should be tested for. Moral status of fetus and abortions In all prenatal diagnostic tests, there is an assumption that there may be
Later stages of malignant melanoma can mean metastization to the lungs, liver, brain, and even bones. If the tumor has begun in the lymph nodes they will have to be removed surgically. In other areas, the tumor may not be able to be removed and will have to be treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Many different factors play into the cure and survival rate for malignant melanoma. The thickness of the tumor, how early in its development it’s caught, where it is located, even gender (women have a higher survival rate), all play a role in survival of a malignant melanoma.
There are numerous parts for cardiovascular ultrasound throughout potentially cardiotoxic cancer treatment regimens. Primarily, prior to potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy, echocardiography can safeguard that patients do not already have diminished cardiac function. Subsequently, throughout chemotherapy, cardiovascular ultrasound can monitor ventricular function to eliminate chemotherapy-induced dysfunction. Preceding, the follow-up treatment, cardiovascular ultrasound can regulate new symptoms that are potentially caused from cardiac disease. Initial discovery of diminished ventricular function permits adjustments in the chemotherapy regimen, either by increasing the break amid doses or by reducing the total cumulative dose of a theoretically toxic agent.
Lifestyle and environmental factors have been closely analyzed for any links that may increase breast cancer risk. During research, it has been found that newer lab tests that are more sensitive, can detect cancer cells that maybe have broken away from the tumor in order to help predict the recurrence of the
Gardasil Causing Girl 's Death My technical reading article is about the HPV vaccine, Gardasil. I chose this article because the subject was very interesting to me. I have taken Gardasil, so the information I have learned is very important to me. Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs published a study recently that provided proof that viral elements in the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil are effectively crossing the blood-brain barrier and triggering cerebral vasculitis. Cerebral vasculitis is a severe form of blood vessel inflammation in the brain that can lead to severe autoimmune disorders and even death.
Depending on the invasive ness of the tumor a lymph node biopsy might be conducted to see if any of the draining lymph nodes were affected (Hodgetts, 2013). If this comes back positive a radical lymph node dissection will be necessary, this may be followed by radiation, depending on the number of nodes affected (Hodgetts, 2013). In the treatment of stage IV tumors there are many methods used. Tumors and lymph nodes may be surgically removed. Patients may also be treated with radiation, immunotherapy, chemotherapy or targeted therapy.