The rough endoplasmic reticulum is involved in synthesizing and packaging proteins for use. It has ribosomes attached to it which is what makes it rough. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum functions as storage for lipids and sterols. Only eukaryotic cells have an endoplasmic reticulum.
All living cells are divided into two distinct categories, those which lack a membrane bound organelles and those that have membrane bound organelles. These are called prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells, respectively. “Organelle” is the word used for the specialized subunit that is within a cell which has a specific function. Mitochondria is one such membrane bound organelle. The word mitochondrion describes its size and shape and comes from the New Greek for “mitos”, which is the word for “thread" and “chondrion”, which is the word for "small grain".
People are single-celled, might possibly move, have a cell divider, have no chloroplasts or different organelles, and have no core (Ruf.rice.edu). They are filamentous and entirely long, green, yet have no unmistakable structure inside the cells (Ruf.rice.edu). They retain supplements through the cell divider or produce their own by photosynthesis (Ruf.rice.edu). The last ones is the Animalia, Animals are multicellular. They have organelles including a core, yet no chloroplasts or cell dividers (Ruf.rice.edu).
Assignment unit 3 1. Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have: 1) a membrane-bound nucleus; 2) numerous membrane-bound organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and others; and 3) several, rod-shaped chromosomes. Because a eukaryotic cell’s nucleus is surrounded by a membrane, it is often said to have a “true nucleus.” The word “organelle” means “little organ,” and, as already mentioned, organelles have specialized cellular functions, just as the organs of your body have specialized functions. At this point, it should be clear to you that eukaryotic cells have a more complex structure than prokaryotic cells. Organelles allow different functions to be compartmentalized in different areas
gel electrophoresis, sequencing cloning (into a plasmid) etc. Identifying pathogens Limitations: There is a possibility that a mutation can occur which will also be replicated during PCR. The DNA sequence for the target region should be known prior to PCR so it is not useful for regions in which the sequence is unknown. Ethical issues Some people are of the opinion that their DNA can be acquired by others easily. Also many believe that genetic engineering is unethical as manipulating DNA is unnatural.
1.1 Physiological Background: 1.1.1 Organization of the testis: The human testes are two organs of ellipsoids shape with diameters of about 2.5 × 4 cm(Foresta et Al., 2012).Engulfed by a capsule (tunica albuginea) of strong connective tissue. Thin septula testis divide the parenchyma of the testis into about 370 conical lobules(Tomova et al., 2010)The lobules consist of the seminiferous tubules and intertubular tissue, containing groups of endocrine Leydig cells and additional cellular elements (Sanjeev et al.,20005),The seminiferous tubules are coiled loops their both ends open in to the spaces of the rete testis.The fluid secreted by the seminiferous tubules is collected in the rete testis and delivered to the ductal system of the epididymis.The
INTRODUCTION Protein folding is a process by which a polypeptide chain folds into its native three dimensional structure, a conformation that is biologically functional. It is most often assumed that protein folding and its biophysical and structural properties observed in dilute buffer solutions in vitro also represent the in vivo scenario. However the intracellular environment is highly crowded because of the presence of large amounts of soluble and insoluble biomolecules including proteins, nucleic acids, osmolytes, ribosomes and carbohydrates. [reference] It has been estimated that the concentration of macromolecules in the cytoplasm ranges from 80 to 400 mg/ml [life in crowded world, rivas, 2004]. All macromolecules in physiological fluids
Disrupting cellular structure is required to release the proteins from the cell. Purification of proteins begins with homogenizing the tissues, then subsequent fractionation and purification of cellular constituents. In this experiment, the source of protein was sprouting seeds. They were homogenized using a sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7, in a blender. After filtration, it was centrifuged.
Mineral also is present in the bone in order to give additional strength to the bone that involve in the hardened the framework whereas protein give a flexible framework to the bone. Besides, there three types of cell that compose in the bone, which is osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocyte. A different type of bone that have a different type of tissue which can be found inside the human body. Osteoblast involve in the dynamic of the skeleton in which, constantly involve in secrete protein and transport mineral into the matrix whereas osteoclasts is important in the functioning of the skeleton and osteoclasts involve in the breakdown of the tissue.