The sun is a very valuable source to the world today. We use it for heat, plants use it to grow, and energy such as solar power. Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity. Solar power is the next alternative to all other sources of energy out there. Fossil fuels such as oil and gas are non-renewable, which means they are limited.
When the sunlight hits on the solar cells which made from crystalline silicon, a semiconductor doped with impurity atoms. This solar cell will separates positive and negative charge carriers, which in turn produces direct current. The shortage of this method is that there no effective storage solution for it therefore converted electricity will be straight used by consumers as discussed in the grid-connected systems. CSP transform the sunlight into heat by using mirrors to concentrate the rays. The heat energy is then used to produce steam that drives a turbine same as conventional coal power plant with the differences of using heat energy from fossil fuels and sunlight rays.
INTRODUCTION A HYBRID VEHICLE is a vehicle which uses any two power source to drive the vehicle. A HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE (HEV) is a vehicle uses a conventional IC Engine and an electric motor to drive the vehicle. The basic need of Hybrid Electric Vehicle was made to have better fuel economy than a conventional IC Engine Vehicle. Now a days there are many types of Hybrid Electric Vehicles and also the degree to which they function. A HEV along with increasing the fuel economy of the vehicle also reduces the pollution emitted to the atmosphere.
Thermoelectric coolers operate by the Peltier effect (which also goes by name thermoelectric effect). The device has two sides, and when DC current flows through the device, it brings heat from one side to the other, so that one side gets cooler while the other gets hotter. The "hot" side is attached to a heat sink so that it remains at ambient temperature, while the cool side goes below room temperature. In some applications, multiple coolers can be cascaded together for lower temperature. 2 | Page Chapter-1.1: INTRODUCTION Thermoelectric cooling uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the junction of
The sun light strikes the upper surface of the cell; some photons are absorbed near the junction of two layers. This generates e.m.f and if the two electrodes are connected through the external circuit a current flow. Photo voltaic cell generates DC supply. However it can be converted to AC of required voltage by power conditioning unit (PCU). There are many companies are supplying solar panels but the institute installed Mono crystalline solar panels of “solar semi-Conductor
When heat is applied to one of the two conductors or semiconductors, heated electrons flow toward the cooler one. If the pair is connected through an electrical circuit, direct current (DC) flows through that circuit. Fig.1.4 • The voltages produced by Seebeck effect are small, usually only a few microvolts per kelvin of temperature difference at the junction. If the temperature difference is large enough, some Seebeck-effect devices can produce a few millivolts. • Numerous such devices can be connected in series to increase the output voltage or in parallel to increase the max.
Abstract¬-----The profusion of solar energy has urged mankind to use it as a substitute for many widespread sources of energy. One of the most generalized ways of utilizing solar energy is by harnessing the solar heat instead of obtaining it from fossil fuels. Solar energy concentration technology using LFS (Linear Fresnel system) is an effective way of utilizing solar energy. This paper has focused on the principle, components and applications of the linear Fresnel system. It mainly describes on the molten salt system.
Phase change materials (PCMs) are “latent” thermal storage materials. They use chemical bonds to store and release heat. The thermal energy transfer occurs when a material changes from a solid to a liquid or from a liquid to a solid. This is called a change in state, or “phase”. Initially, these solid-liquid PCMs perform like conventional storage materials; their temperature rises as they absorb solar heat.
The converters efficiency depends on the losses in switching devices, of the range of power used and the type of control used. Power electronic circuit and DC-DC converters they convert DC voltage to some other DC voltage level. The block diagram is shown in Fig. 1.1 Solar energy is abundantly found in nature. The solar panel voltage is given as input to the Buck-Boost converter circuit.
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Grid connected inverter The grid connected inverter is the power inverter connected between solar PV system and the grid. The grid connected inverter is mostly microcontroller based as it has various advantages of low cost and the in built pulse width modulation. The DC output from the solar PV system is converted into the AC and fed back to the grid. Due to the direct transfer of power from solar panel to transmission line through inverter eliminates the necessity of batteries and thus reduces the space, cost and maintenance cost of the system. When the solid state inverter introduced its control strategy makes the connection of solar PV system with the grid more feasible as shown in fig 3.1. nowadays the transmission