Name: Ruci Tabaleka USP ID#: s11109634 Date Sub. : 11/08/15 Lab#: 2 Title: Davy Jones Locker Aim To conduct an investigation about the density of water that could explain the layers present in the ocean including the myth of Davis Jones’s locker. Introduction The ocean covers approximately 71% of the earth’s surface and is arranged into three different layers namely the surface layer, mixed layer in the middle and bottom layer. The surface layer is warm and is less dense compared to the other two layers. The middle layer is known to be the transitional layer because it is where the density of water changes with depth and finally, the bottom layer is very cold, salty and the densest water in the ocean.
Aerosols are ever-present and highly-varying constituents of our atmosphere. They play roles in many physical and chemical processes that shape the composition of the atmosphere and thereby affect cloud formation, visibility, and air quality. They interact both directly and indirectly with radiation and thus affect the amount of radiative energy reaching the surface and reflected to space. The shortwave part of the radiative energy at the surface (insolation) is an important component of the surface energy budget, and a necessary input to models of land-surface processes. To describe the interaction of the earth's atmosphere with solar radiation, the atmosphere's composition must be understood.
The rate of the reactions (1)–(3) is a function of the “surface roughness” of the specimen and the “dissolved oxygen content” in the seawater. As indicated schematically in Fig. 1, the overall rate of the reactions (1)–(3) tend to be constant in time.This phenomenological approach does not reflect the formation of localized corrosion cells and non-linear behaviour at first immersion but is considered as close approximation for modelling
It is a phenomenon due to variation in temperature of the surface of the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean – warming or cooling. It causes extreme weather conditions in the equatorial pacific region like drought in Australia or nonstop rainfall in South America. In U.S., Texas burns while Mississippi
2.4.5 Tide Along with the waves, tides are other major types of phenomena that control the interactions between sea and coast. The tides are best known as the rise and fall of the sea around the edges of the land. The rise and fall of the tides may result in small scale and short term topographical changes on the beach. Hill (2004) found that small-scale beach erosion occurs when the tide rises while accretion occurs when it falls. In some coastal areas there is a regular pattern of one high tide and one low tide each day; this is a diurnal tide.
Carbon dioxide is transferred between the ocean and the atmosphere usually it travels from the atmosphere to the ocean and finally there reached an equilibrium stage CARBON STOREHOUSE The oceans presently absorb a large amount of human-created CO2, roughly 22 million tons per day. Increase in the number shows that at the end of the century, continued discharge could lessen ocean’s pH by additional 0.5 units. Shell-forming organisms including corals, shrimps, lobster, oysters, many planktonic species, and even many fish species are affected badly. The issue is; as the oceans continuously absorb more carbon dioxide, their capacity as a
These gasses are added to seawater from the climate through the blending of the ocean surface by wind and waves. The centralization of gasses that can be broken down into seawater from the air is controlled by temperature and saltiness of the water. As temperature and saltiness increment the disintegration of these gasses diminish. The vital environmental gasses found in seawater include: nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide-as bicarbonate HCO3-, argon, helium, and neon. Contrasted with the other barometrical gasses, the measure of carbon dioxide broke down is extensive.
Ocean Energy Ocean energy has vast potential as 70% of the earth is covered with water. The tides that hit sea shore have enormous potential in them and can be used to convert to electrical energy. Ocean energy can be captured via 3 ways (a) Wave Energy, (b) Tidal Energy, (c) OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion). Wave energy is captured directly from the surface of the waves which are nothing but regular disturbances produced on the surface of water. Tidal energy captures kinetic energy from incoming and outgoing tides and tidal energy generator uses that kinetic energy and convert it to electrical energy.
Although the major constituents can be removed from oceans by chemical and biological processes, removal generally would have less overall effect on the concentration of the constituent as they are stable over time. They are said to have conservative behaviour, on the other hand, rate at which water mixes through the ocean is much faster than the rate at which these constituents are supplied or removed, hence variations are observed in their concentration owing to difference in physical processess such as evaporation , melting and mixing, However the “Ratios” of these elements is almost constant under most conditions. This is known generally as Principle of Constant Proportions and has important bearing on determination of saltiness of seas. (OES) 5.2. The total quantity of dissolved solids present in the waters of the oceans can be gauged by an assumption of an average salinity of 35% and volume of ocean being 1.37 x 10 9 km3 with a density insitu of 1.04.
Due to the fact that these are located underwater the salt water erosion can become an issue and the physical collection of the energy once generated for transportation is also a problem. The ocean’s holds the single largest possibility for energy collection due to its function as a solar panel collecting an estimated eighty percent (80%) of the Earth’s energy which concurrently equates to about 250 billion barrels of oil production daily. One of the other interesting parts about the ocean is the fact that as the superficial layer of the ocean becomes heated the lower regions remain much colder, and with this a process called “Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)” turns this temperature difference into energy.” The process begins when the warm surface water is used to boil a fluid producing steam. The steam turns a turbine and generates electricity; cold water in the ocean depths is used to condense the steam and turn it back into water thus completing the