The Convention of Kanagawa of 1854, the Ansei Commercial Treaties of 1858, and Meiji Restoration of 1868 marked the beginning of a prolonged and intensive language contact between Japanese and English, which ebbed briefly in the 1930s but was resumed with a new vigour after the World War II. Despite the attempts of the Japanese government “to cultivate ‘Japanese with English abilities’”, Japan is consistently relegated to the Expanding Circle of English along with China and Korea. In the typology of “three Concentric Circles of English” proposed by Braj B. Kachru, the Expanding Circle includes those countries where English operates as a medium of international communication and has no official status. For the overwhelming majority of the
In this context, the question "Where does Japan stand?" can be raised. Japanese scholars as well as scholars of Japanese law from other countries frequently discuss this issue. On the one hand side, Japanese civil law, and in particular the provisions in the Japanese Civil Code (Minpō, enacted in 1898) regarding contract law, are based on European models of contract law of the 19th century. Japanese contract law was especially influenced by the drafts of the German Civil Code, which eventually came into force on January 1, 1900, and German prevalent legal theories around that time.
Howard Hibbett has dedicated his career to the study and academic appreciation of Japanese Literature. In addition to teaching at UCLA and Harvard, where he specialized in Japanese literature, Hibbett was the director of the Edwin O. Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies. Hibbett has contributed to the academic community as a translator and scholar. He has translated many works from Japanese so that English-speaking students may appreciate a foreign world of literature. The Floating World in Japanese Fiction is the product of many years of study.
Japan was no longer looked at as a country that imperialistic nations could take advantage of. They were looking towards the future and they were using the West as an example for the kind of country they wanted to be. If someone read Some Prefer Nettles without knowing the history of Japan, there would be many things they would become confused about. This novel
In order to unfold how the advertisements, work a persuasive mechanism concerning class and gender, and particularly how women are depicted in today’s society. J. Berger expresses how advertisements have changed over a period of time by saying, ‘without social envy, glamour cannot exist’ and that ‘those who lack ‘glamour’ become faceless’ (Berger, 1972). With this observation, we can understand that the advertisements are becoming more about the physical appearance and that these representations create impact on the image of women in today’s culture. The focal point of this research paper is on gender manipulation in advertisements, especially through modern brands. An analysis is formed to emphasize the fabricated representations of women in fashion advertising through Foss’s rhetorical theory.
However, this research doesn’t focus on educational, socioeconomic, age or other factors apart from the gender. Most of the surveys on occupational stereotypes have been done in the UK and USA (Cameron, 2005, p. 499). Therefore, I think it would be interesting to examine the phenomenon in Japan, where the labour force is open and officially giving an equal opportunity to both men and women (Adachi, 2013, p.641). However, according to the Global Gender Gap Report, Japan’s 2012 gender gap indicates complete inequality. The aim of this survey is identity existence of jot-titles stereotypes in Japan, and whether the male and females see occupational stereotypes differently than in previous studies.
So they established sociolinguistics in 1960s. 1-1 Definition of Sociolinguistic Social aspects of language in modern period were first studied by Indian and Japanese linguists in 1930s but none received much attention in the West until much later. Sociolinguistics as a major was established in 1960s by William Labav. From that time on many different definitions were proposed for sociolinguistic, these definitions paid more attention on society, linguistic or both. Sociolinguistics is a branch of linguistics that is concerned with how people use language to create and express identities, relate to one another in groups, and seek to resist, protect or increase various kinds of power (Wardhaugh, 2005).
After paying the war reparations, Japan’s reserves of ODA continued to increase at a high rate. In 1991, Japan was the first ODA donor worldwide. Now, one could ask why would Japan spend so much money and efforts to support socially and economically developing countries. After Japan’s defeat in 1945, the country established a new constitution. However, Japan’s new constitution had many limitations and a good example of this limitation is the use of its Japanese Defense Forces (JDF) even though today the reinterpretation of Article 9 is allowing the Japanese government to deploy more freely its JDF, but this is another debate.
During visits to Weston societies delegations from Japan realised the need and reality of matching the education achievements of the western world. To help achieve this Japan abolished the rigid class distinctions within the education system and a successful meritocratic system was put into place. Japan also recognized that the western education systems held many merits that could be used as a template within the Japanese education system. They utilized the centralized French administrative system, Germanys view of elite universities and Englands model of strong national moral principles OECD (2010a). But probably most notable was the USA’s pedagogical paradigm of John Dewey that ‘school should be responsible for developing the whole child’ (Dewey J, 1902).
In phase I Pre-test was conducted, Phase II Post-test was conducted and Phase III questionnaire was used to elicit data from the teachers who were teaching professional students. Findings of the study helped to shed light on an important facet of developing writing skills in the context of teaching English as a second language for professional course students. Review: Vivian Zamel (1983) looked at the composing processes of six advanced ESL students. Among the six, there were both skilled and unskilled writers. Zamel found that the least skilled writer in her study, like native-English speaking counterparts, ‘paused so often and between such short chunks of discourse that the overall relationships between ideas seemed to suffer’.